Data Analysis in Sociology
- develop skills necessary to solve typical data analysis problems on social data in the R software environment
- Conduct statistical analyses in RStudio
- Choose appropriate methods and techniques for certain types of variables and certain aims of the analysis
- Give meaningful interpretation of statistical results: regression coefficients, tables, plots and diagrams (produced in R)
- Perform data transformations
- Represent graphically the results of the statistical analyses
- Create analytical reports describing all the stages of analysis and interpreting its results
- Research hypotheses vs. statistical hypotheses. Variable typesThe cycle of research. Data analysis as part of the research process. Posing and testing hypotheses. Research hypotheses vs. statistical hypotheses testing. Directed and non-directed hypotheses. Dependent and independent variables. Variable scales: nominal, ordinal, continuous (interval and ratio). Descriptive statistics of a variable depending on its type. Getting to know R and RStudio.
- Central tendency measuresMean, median, mode. Standard normal distribution and its use. Z-scores. Moments of distributions. Distribution plots and reading them. Sources of bias in data. Interpretation of z-scores. Mean as a data model.
- Chi-squareObserved and expected frequencies. Measures of association for categorical variables. Reading and interpreting chi-square tests. Assumptions of chi-square. Independence. Standardised residuals. Odds ratio. Chi-square and other association measures in R.
- Two means comparisonIndependent and paired samples. Assumptions behind the t-test. One-sample t-test. Two-sample t-tests. Nonparametric tests for two samples and for multiple samples. Reading and interpreting means comparison. Confidence intervals. Means comparison in R
- One-way ANOVAAssumptions and usage of ANOVA. Between-group and within-group variance, their ratio. Planned and non-planned comparisons; corrections. Post hoc comparisons for equal and unequal variances. Reading and interpreting ANOVA. One-way ANOVA in R. Presenting the results of ANOVA. Getting to know RMarkdown: reports and slide shows.
- Linear regressionCorrelations. Research problems for correlational analysis. Correlation coefficients for different types of data. ANOVA, correlation, regression as linear models. Building a linear regression. Ordinary least squares. Fitting the regression line. Assumptions behind linear regression. Reading and interpreting regressions. Presenting and interpreting a linear regression. Categorical predictors in a linear regression. Dummy-coding. Linear regression in R. Plotting linear regressions in R (case studies).
- Linear regression with multiple predictorsThe concept of interaction effects for categorical by categorical, categorical by continuous, continuous by continuous variables. Effect coding. Centring. Multicollinearity. Reading and interpreting interaction models in a linear regression. Testing for interactions in R. Reporting and interpreting a linear regression with interactions.
- ProjectsLate submissions are not considered (try us). If you are ill during the project submission, present a medical certificate to get the formula adjusted for you. If you miss more than one project, there might be a makeup assignment. When you submit a project in MS Teams, you must click on the "Turn in" button to complete the submission. All projects are, first, posted to the dedicated channel where they are peer-reviewed, and submitted in the Assignments section by each contributing student. If you have any questions about the project, sign up for a consultation.
- In-class activity
- Short tests
- MOOC completion
- Mid-Term Test
- Interim assessment (4 module)0.2 * Exam + 0.1 * In-class activity + 0.15 * Mid-Term Test + 0.05 * MOOC completion + 0.4 * Projects + 0.1 * Short tests
- Denis, D. J. (2016). Applied Univariate, Bivariate, and Multivariate Statistics. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1091881
- Stowell, S. (2014). Using R for Statistics. Berkeley, CA: Apress. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1174344
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2014). Using Multivariate Statistics: Pearson New International Edition (Vol. 6th ed). Harlow, Essex: Pearson. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=nlebk&AN=1418064
- Agresti, A., & Finlay, B. (2014). Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences: Pearson New International Edition (Vol. Pearson new international ed., 4. ed). Harlow England: Pearson. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=nlebk&AN=1418314
- Crawley, M. J. (2013). The R Book (Vol. Second Edition). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=531630
- Little, T. D. (2013). The Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=603942