Data Analysis in Sociology
- develop skills necessary to solve typical data analysis problems on social data in the R software environment
- Choose appropriate methods and techniques for certain types of variables and certain aims of the analysis
- Give meaningful interpretation of statistical results: regression coefficients, tables, plots and diagrams (produced in R)
- Perform data transformations
- Represent graphically the results of the statistical analyses
- Create analytical reports describing all the stages of analysis and interpreting its results
- Conduct statistical analyses in RStudio
- Central tendency measuresMean, median, mode. Standard normal distribution and its use. Z-scores. Moments of distributions. Distribution plots and reading them. Sources of bias in data. Interpretation of z-scores. Mean as a data model.
- Chi-squareObserved and expected frequencies. Measures of association for categorical variables. Reading and interpreting chi-square tests. Assumptions of chi-square. Independence. Standardised residuals. Odds ratio. Chi-square and other association measures in R.
- Two means comparisonIndependent and paired samples. Assumptions behind the t-test. One-sample t-test. Two-sample t-tests. Nonparametric tests for two samples and for multiple samples. Reading and interpreting means comparison. Confidence intervals. Means comparison in R
- One-way ANOVAAssumptions and usage of ANOVA. Between-group and within-group variance, their ratio. Planned and non-planned comparisons; corrections. Post hoc comparisons for equal and unequal variances. Reading and interpreting ANOVA. One-way ANOVA in R. Presenting the results of ANOVA. Getting to know RMarkdown: reports and slide shows.
- Linear regressionCorrelations. Research problems for correlational analysis. Correlation coefficients for different types of data. ANOVA, correlation, regression as linear models. Building a linear regression. Ordinary least squares. Fitting the regression line. Assumptions behind linear regression. Reading and interpreting regressions. Presenting and interpreting a linear regression. Categorical predictors in a linear regression. Dummy-coding. Linear regression in R. Plotting linear regressions in R (case studies).
- Linear regression with multiple predictorsThe concept of interaction effects for categorical by categorical, categorical by continuous, continuous by continuous variables. Effect coding. Centring. Multicollinearity. Reading and interpreting interaction models in a linear regression. Testing for interactions in R. Reporting and interpreting a linear regression with interactions.
- ProjectsLate submissions are not considered (try us). If you are ill during the project submission, present a medical certificate to get the formula adjusted for you. If you miss more than one project, there might be a makeup assignment. When you submit a project in MS Teams, you must click on the "Turn in" button to complete the submission. All projects are, first, posted to the dedicated channel where they are peer-reviewed, and submitted in the Assignments section by each contributing student. If you have any questions about the project, sign up for a consultation.
- In-class activity
- Short tests
- MOOC completion
- Mid-Term Test
- Interim assessment (4 module)0.2 * Exam + 0.1 * In-class activity + 0.15 * Mid-Term Test + 0.05 * MOOC completion + 0.4 * Projects + 0.1 * Short tests
- Denis, D. J. (2016). Applied Univariate, Bivariate, and Multivariate Statistics. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1091881
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2014). Using Multivariate Statistics: Pearson New International Edition (Vol. 6th ed). Harlow, Essex: Pearson. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=nlebk&AN=1418064
- Agresti, A., & Finlay, B. (2014). Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences: Pearson New International Edition (Vol. Pearson new international ed., 4. ed). Harlow England: Pearson. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=nlebk&AN=1418314
- Crawley, M. J. (2013). The R Book (Vol. Second Edition). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=531630