193171, Saint Petersburg,
55 Sedova Ulitsa, Building 2, room 310
phone (812) 560-03-32
198099, Saint Petersburg,
17 Promyshlennaya Ulitsa, room 405 А
phone (812) 300-83-49
194100, Saint Petersburg
3 Kantemirovskaya Ulitsa, room 210, 211
phone (812) 644-59-11 * 61526 (812) 644-59-11 * 61527
The article is a reflection of practice-related research that aimed at bringing together corpus linguistics tools and teaching in L2 classroom. The focus throughout is on exploring the relationship between corpus analysis and language acquisition practice and how far the usage of corpus tools can provide answers to the questions and issues that arise in practice of language teaching.
Structurally, the article gives a brief overview of corpora influence on language teaching over the recent decades, and then tries to elaborate on how it feeds into content selection, language teaching material as well as classroom techniques. Specifically, some attention is devoted to overwhelming contrast between spoken and written register, which was described by Biber et al  as a result of a large-scale corpus-based analysis. The corpus study influences our understanding of both quantitative and qualitative implications for learner vocabulary, which are also discussed in the main body. In conclusion, we share some insights into how much corpus-based material is advisable to include as we develop our syllabi since we admit that it might be rather time-consuming to turn corpus examples into exercises and classroom activities.
The article states that the contribution of corpus research to understanding and describing the language we teach is hardly disputable. What is more, the superficial indication that a given course book has been corpus-informed is only the tip of the iceberg. As Scot and Tribble  put it “the very foundations of Linguistics have been shaken; in some cases the movement of the
tectonic plates has thrust up new Himalayas where before there was apparently level ground.” [p. 4]. Thus, technological shift shook long held notions in language education, as seemingly explicit grammar rules gave way to less explicable authentic usage with a view to understanding the English outside the classroom.
On the practical side, the paper presents a set of corpus–based tasks, follow-up activities and expected results. These aimed at awareness-raising to register differences and sociolinguistic implications of hedging; additional practice for grammar patterns and idioms is presented. Within corpus-based activities learners are also presented with some contrasting statistics for cohesive devices use based on native speaker and non-native speaker writing. As a way of concluding remark, we suggest that corpus be used as a reference tool together with grammar books and dictionaries by both teachers and learners.
The term Aktionsart is widely used in modern aspectology; however, there is no common understanding of its meaning. In basic terms, three different approaches to Aktionsart can be identified in modern literature on aspect. The most widespread view equates Aktionsart to lexical aspect, a classification of verbs into Vendlerian or quasi-Vendlerian categories that underlie aspectual properties of the verb. While this approach is predominantly used outside Slavic linguistics, Slavists usually apply the term to phenomena other than lexical aspect. In Slavic studies, the two existing approaches trace their roots to Sigurd Agrell’s study of Polish verb derivatives with special attention to the semantic functions of prefixes (Agrell 1908). However, Agrell’s definition of Aktionsart did not enable a unified understanding of the term. On the one hand, he described Aktionsarten as semantic functions specifying the way the action is performed; on the other hand, his analysis focused on derivatives rather than simple verbs. This triggered the development of the aspectual-semantic and the derivational-modificational theories of Aktionsart. The article discusses both approaches and the relationship between Aktionsarten and the aspectuality domain.
In contemporary academia, multilingual scholars using English as an additional language (EAL) are actively engaged in knowledge construction producing more research texts in English than native speakers (Hyland, 2016). Having a more general purpose to gain insights into the factors that influence multilingual scholars’ research writing practices in English, this case study seeks to explore how EAL users perceive disciplinary norms of epistemic stance expression in political science. It is based on interviews with 5 Russian political scientists and on the analysis of their research texts. The findings suggest that the participants do not seem to have a shared understanding of disciplinary norms regarding epistemic stance expression; however, their narratives highlight the importance of the methodological paradigm the texts belong to for their writing practices. The study is a contribution to the discussion of the role of the discipline in EAL scholars’ research writing practices and linguistic and rhetorical variability of research texts within one discipline. The results of this study have pedagogical implications for ERPP course designers and practitioners.
Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для обучения академическим навыкам письма и подготовки к сдаче международного экзамена IELTS по аспектy «Академическое письмо».
Целью пособия является формирование и закрепление академических навыков, необходимых для создания англоязычных текстов учебной и научной направленности на микро и макроуровнях. Пособие направлено на формирование компетенций, необходимых для использования английского языка в учебной, научной, и профессиональной деятельности. Пособие включает разделы, посвященные особенностям написания параграфа, изучения структуры академического эссе, а также эссе формата международного экзамена IELTS.
Материал пособия рекомендуется использовать для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов. Пособие может быть полезно студентам преподавателям вузов, а также для всех желающих приобрести академические навыки письма на английском языке.
Genre has been one of the key categories for Russian literary studies
ever since the late nineteenth century, creating a long tradition of artistic,
critical and scientific interpretation. The present paper aims to outline major
findings of Russian scholars in the field of genre studies and to account for
current pitfalls, suggesting a solution. Russian scholars have contributed
noticeably to both constructing the theory of genre in general and establishing
the laws and genesis of many separate genres. Historical poetics, the Russian
Formalists, Bakhtin’s school and structuralism worked out the principles
of generic evolution and explained the nature of the genre category. Still,
currently Russian genology faces a number of challenges, among which is the
inability to work out a universal approach to genre nomination and attribution,
which causes inconsistent and unverified results. W hen it comes to describing
new genres, most troubling is the choice of deductive method in genre analysis
and a narrow specialist approach to each genre leading to inconclusive or
biased results. The paper suggests that these challenges can be overcome by
turning to the heritage of the classical Russian literary science and taking
advantage of comparative and inductive methods proponed by it.
The theory of foregrounding, developed by St. Petersburg scholar
Irina Vladimirovna Arnold in the middle of the 20th century, was rather
revolutionary for its time as it aimed to establish connection between
formal levels of the language and textual meanings that allowed the
reader to decode the author’s message. Arnold identifies four principal
elements of foregrounding that disclose conceptual textual meaning: the
strong position of a text, repetitions on different levels of language, the
convergence of stylistic devices and defeated expectancy. The professor
states that these elements of the text are always intentional and, thus, give
a key to understanding the author’s message and position. This theory,
being universal and easy to apply, has been widely used by Russian scholars
working in the domain of textual linguistics and stylistics until nowadays.
Such an approach increases the objectivity of the scientific findings in
this area and enriches the overall text analysis with extra details and
more meanings disclosed. The paper gives an overview of the theory of
foregrounding, emphasizing the role it plays in text analysis and stylistics of
decoding, and illustrates its principles with examples of practical analysis of
the text conducted by the author of the paper.
In the late 18th century the word “legenda” entered the Russian language, and several decades later it started to be used by Russian writers as a generic label. The present paper analyses short prosaic texts written in the 1820-1830 with this label in their titles or subtitles. The aim of the research is to ascertain whether such texts followed a similar generic pattern. As the literary legend was a fully developed genre in the late 19th century Russian literature, the research will presumably enable us to trace the formation of the genre. I argue that the chosen texts share a network of constituent properties, which indicates their generic cognateness and allows the reader to attribute them as literary legends. Roughly, the Russian literary legend of the 1820-s1840-s may be characterized as a historical narrative relating some extraordinary, often criminal events. Though the audience is likely to disbelieve the story, the narrator finds it necessary to communicate it, as it contains an important truth or idea missing from conventional sources. Despite the similarity of the generic pattern, the genre had fuzzy boundaries in the first half of the 19th century, which is revealed in numerous title alterations, inconsistency in using cognate labels (skazanie, predanie, byl’), absence of legend cycles, and insufficient speculations on the genre. However, it can be concluded that the literary legend of the time was a grain from which the late 19th century genre developed.
The paper gives an analysis of the metaphors of old age that are well-established in German culture. The aim of the study is an empirical analysis of how old age is represented in the German language, reflecting the attitudes of society to old age.
The material for the study was a selection of aphoristic and proverbal text fragments that include the lexeme Alter (hohes Alter).
The methodological basis of the study is the cognitive theory of metaphor of G. Lakoff and M. Johnson, who argue that metaphors are not limited to the sphere of language and that the processes of human thinking themselves are metaphorical.
The study also relies on metaphorical modeling, a theory which makes it possible to identify a system of metaphorical models in the discourse of old age, reflecting the attitude of members of society towards this discourse and its participants, forming a linguistic picture of the world.
The analysis identified several metaphorical models; the most popular is the time cycle model (daily cycle, annual cycle), which represent old age as the evening or autumn of life – the time to prepare for the end of the cycle: winter/night is the time of death, when all life in nature freezes, “falls asleep”.
Old age is personified as an evil tyrant, robbing an elderly person of external beauty, energy, sometimes even clarity of thoughts.
The natural metaphorical model proclaims the physical and mental functionality and attractiveness of old age: an old person is compared with natural phenomena (gray hair – foam after a big storm at sea).
The architectural model represents old age as a building (a prison with the semantics of involuntary alienation from life, limiting the possibilities of movement and communication) or as its element (a balcony, which makes it possible to see wide surroundings and to evaluate what is happening).
The semantics of metaphors include an emotional assessment of old age. The high degree of influence of the considered metaphors on the opinions and beliefs of society necessitate further study of the metaphors themselves and the discourses of their functioning.
The opening chapter of Public Administration: Perspectives, Management and Challenges is devoted addressing new challenges in public administration in Russia, including law requirements regarding the transparency of public policy and the difficulties surrounding their implementation. Following this, the authors assess historical and contemporary examples of innovation in Norwegian municipalities. The criticisms and limits of the results management model implemented in the Brazilian subnational units are analyzed based on specialized literature and three case studies. In closing, in the context of spatial integrated complex solutions regarding the poverty alleviation and social cohesion needs increasing in rural areas in Romania, the authors suggest a conceptual and analytical framework based on risk identification.
The monograph is the result of the joint efforts of linguistic scientists working in different cities of our country and abroad. It presents the materials of a scientific discussion on the problem indicated in its title: rationality and emotionality of language and speech. The study of these areas relates to cardinal and quite popular linguistic problems, since they are associated with feelings and attitudes towards the addressee and subject of speech. But despite the good luck and achievements in the field of their study, there are still many gaps waiting to be filled with new research. Rethinking the well-known and repeatedly discussed linguistic material in this direction can therefore help to clarify information about it in the general linguistic plan.
This paper explores word frequency patterns when considering text length, authorship
and random distortion of texts. Through a series of experiments, we determined an
optimal text size, a phenomenon that was predicted by George Zipf, which sees a
minimal discrepancy between calculated and observed frequencies. A graphic
representation allowed a plausible explanation behind the existence of this
phenomenon. Working on the assumption that distorted texts might disobey Zipf's Law,
we explored correlations among frequencies and text entirety compared to text
distortions. Results revealed the crucial role of text length for maintaining Zipfian
distribution: randomly chosen sets of words and fragmentary texts of optimal size still
obey Zipf's Law. Findings show that authorship manifests itself through the author
constant, defined as the relative frequency of the most frequent words, which remains
constant throughout the works of any given author, including randomly chosen text
chunks and fragments of sentences of various sizes.
The paper touches upon some of the problems experiences by postgraduate programmes at Russian universities with regards to teaching EFL. It attempts to highlight some of the solutions proposed by researchers of higher education, some of whom advocate for multi-dimensional solutions plan.
Introduction. The scientific work focuses on the linguistic concepts of terminology and a term system, provides the views of linguists on the definition and differentiation of these terms, explains the semantics of the word and the term, as well as the role of the cognitive approach in modern terminology. The scientific work defines a concept and a category, and describes the role of the processes of conceptualization and categorization in English terminology. As more than 90% of new words appearing in modern languages is vocabulary for special purposes, it is increasingly important to study the ways of their formation.
Methodology and sources. In light of the cognitive approach to understanding the semantics of words an emphasis should be based on anthropocentrist thinking, language picture of the world language and lexical-semantic variants of the word. The cognitive approach allows us to reveal the causes and mechanisms of dynamic processes in the field of professional nomination, taking into account the changing cognitive and communication needs of people. The research is made using corpora data.
Results and discussion. Cognitive categories are linked to conceptually defined prototypes that are crucial for the formation of categories. The central elements of prototypical categories make the category logical, understandable and convenient, since all members of the category meet a given list of characteristics.
Conclusion. The research is relevant since it provides a deeper understanding of the structure and content of concepts that underlie the formation of language categories, the mechanisms of interaction between cognitive and language structures in the process of forming the terminological meaning.
This paper is devoted to new challenges in public administration in Russia which includes law requirements of transparency of public policy and difficulties of their implementation. The theoretical framework is based on both Good Governance theory and Democratic theory. Data comes from the case study based on real practices of Russian public administration. These cases can demonstrate possibilities and limitations of the current administrative reform. The results can help to create a “road map” of government bodies including the pioneers of transparent policy and the actors who try to reduce a transparent activity.
The article studies the role of warm-ups during foreign language classes at the tertiary level and the factors that influence teachers’ decisions regarding this lesson stage. While it is generally acknowledged that warm-ups constitute an essential part of any lesson and cater for teachers’ and students’ needs, university context often makes teachers refrain from this stage. The aim of the paper is to outline the reasons for skipping the initial state of the lesson and assess the grounds for these reasons, as well as to give some practical recommendations. The research is based on the 2019 survey of teachers of the Higher School of Economics – St.Petersburg and identifies some negative scenarios that induce teachers to skip warm-ups. They are connected with reluctance to spend classroom time on warm-ups, fear of students’ negative reaction to a non-academic task, necessity to invest time in designing activities, and insufficiency of recommendations concerning warm-ups. However, the students’ answers reveal their positive attitude to warm-ups and show that teachers’ concerns are futile. The responses of those teachers who regularly conduct warm-ups demonstrate that the setbacks can be easily overcome if teachers are offered initial training and support. The benefits of warm-ups definitely outweigh the predicted (anticipated, involved, associated) drawbacks and this stage should not be neglected in adult classroom.
This paper considers verbal and non-verbal manifestations of the Middle English concept dwelling. The authors posit that the characteristic features of the Medieval dwelling, as well as people’s conceptual vision of the world of physical reality are reflected in the language units employed to name these artifacts. The linguistic analyses of the concept manifestants are performed within the framework of an interpretation field, which enables one to map the mental structure of this concept. At the same time, language means alone cannot be the only object of such concept studies: integrated analyses of lexical means together with such non-verbal phenomena as architectural monuments of the Medieval Britain between the 11th and 14th cc. BC, and other artifacts make it possible to build a more or less complete picture of the Medieval dwelling. Another key aspect of the question under discussion is the assumption that there is a strong correlation between the appearance of a dwelling place and its structure/function on the development of the semantic structure of the Middle English polysemantic words associated with the medieval abode.
This paper considers verbal and non-verbal manifestations of the Middle English concept dwelling, and posits that the characteristic features of the Medieval dwelling, as well as people’s conceptual vision of the world of physical reality are reflected in the language units employed to name these artifacts. The linguistic analyses of the concept manifestants are
performed within the framework of an interpretation field, which enables one to map the mental structure of this concept. With the rural manor being in the centre of this study, the authors theorize that the conceptual picture of dwelling is faceted, and moulded by nuclear cognitive features. These core features embrace nominative and nonderivative meanings of the key words behind this concept, i. e. house, dwellinge, hom 'building / construction / structure for
people/animals to live in'. The lexical units manifesting any of these features in their semantics account for the nuclear part of the field. The cluster of the nuclear features of the concept rests stable for different speakers across a selected social group, while other lexis constituents of the field are classed in various sense-groups with one or more central cognitive feature/s for each group. The list of such cognitive features and, accordingly, of the sense-groups retrieved in the course of the cognitive analysis performed is not definitive, but to a certain degree may mirror the way the medieval
English speaker could picture the concept of dwelling. The focus on the medieval dwelling as a subject of the study has a linguistic background: the authors failed to trace any strong juxtaposition of the features constituting rural / urban dwellings in the period, and thus, of the words naming them, which can be partly explained by the agriculture-based economy of the England of the 10–11th cc. AD, and the late emergence of urban areas. At the same time, language means alone cannot be the only object of such concept studies: integrated analyses of lexical means together with such
non-verbal phenomena as architectural monuments of the Medieval Britain between the 11th and 14th cc. BC, and other artifacts make it possible to build a more or less complete picture of the Medieval dwelling. Another key aspect of the question under discussion is the assumption that there is a strong correlation between the appearance of a dwelling place and its structure / function on the development of the semantic structure of the Middle English polysemantic words associated with the medieval abode.
The chapter is devoted to the study of surrealist exhibitions and the collective creativity of surrealists.
The paper attempts to apply Create a Research Space (CARS) model (Swales, 1990) as a tool of genre analysis to explore one of the least studied genres ‘research proposal’ in English in two academic fields (management and economics). The study focuses on the structure of introductions to research proposals written by bachelor students in English, which is their first foreign language.
The study aims to respond to the following questions:
1. Is it possible to apply CARS methodology suggested to explore the genre of an empirical research article to the genre analysis of research proposals based on an introduction?
2. In what way are introductions to research proposals, written in English by Russian-speaking students in two neighboring sciences, economics and management, are similar and different?
The rhetorical structure of an introduction as part of a research proposal in management and economics is a poorly studied area. The both disciplines under investigation are social sciences and therefore should have similar characteristics. The aim of this research is to compare and contrast data on the frequency of rhetorical moves within each discipline and between them to then compare and contrast the obtained results with the CARS concept.
The CARS model was chosen as a research instrument as the most elaborated and reflected in scientific literature tool to study EAP (English for academic purposes) texts.
For research purposes, the corpus of research proposals’ introductions has been built. The CARS model was applied to work with the corpus within two stages: a) text analysis to reveal the main patterns of moves and steps and their differences and similarities across the two disciplines, b) linguistic signals’ analysis within the structure of each move (the use of tenses, verb forms, lexical items, etc.).
All the texts within our corpus (20 texts in economics and 20 texts in management) were written by students of one university (National Research University Higher School of Economics) in accordance with the institutional requirements. The structure of the research proposals within the corpus was the basic one for the genre and the requirements of the institution and comprised the following sections: 1) background to the study, (2) rationale for the study, (3) objective of the study, (4) research questions, (5) theoretical framework, (6) methodology, (7) expected results, and (8) research implications.
The results show that the moves and steps in students’ papers in the two disciplines vary in structure. There are significant similarities and differences between the disciplines. The study demonstrates that CARS model is applicable to investigate various characteristic features of research papers in different academic fields including research proposals in economics and management. However, the model was found to have some limitations for genre analysis if a text has an unconventional moves’ structure, which might be typical for non- English speaking novice authors.
The article is concerned with structural, cognitive, semantic, and cultural characteristics of English fabric names formed by means of deonymic derivation. The material under analysis consists of simple and composite lexical units which are derivatives from proper nouns referring to some onomastic realia in Great Britain and Northern Ireland . The corpus of deonymic fabric names was compiled by the authors from general and specialized dictionaries, as well as from websites of the UK textile companies. The analysis of reality-conventionality of relations between proper names and their derivatives resulted in dividing the researched fabric names into 2 groups: motivated nominations and relatively conventional symbols.