193171, Saint Petersburg,
55 Sedova Ulitsa, Building 2, room 310
phone (812) 560-03-32
198099, Saint Petersburg,
17 Promyshlennaya Ulitsa, room 405 А
phone (812) 300-83-49
194100, Saint Petersburg
3 Kantemirovskaya Ulitsa, room 210, 211
phone (812) 644-59-11 * 61526 (812) 644-59-11 * 61527
The chapter is devoted to the study of surrealist exhibitions and the collective creativity of surrealists.
This article explores the reader community in surrealism. Surrealism, a inherently verbal and literary movement, devotes special attention to reading: quotes and allusions, the "lives" of poets play a key role in the surrealistic works. However, the ideology of surrealism is constantly changing, becoming more complicated, undergoing theoretical evolution, and the movement itself, after verbal practices, turns first to visual and then to hybrid forms of interaction. The increasing complexity of the theory leads to the formation of a special “prepared” “reader” whose perception is “brought up” by surrealistic techniques. The key here is the development of special sensuality - a kind of hybrid perception of reality, due to the complexity of the surrealist theory. The opposition of the author / reader is gradually being destroyed by the surrealists, and the community of surrealists and their readers takes on the form of an interpreting community (S. Fish).
Avant-garde art, and especially surrealism, is characterized by a specific set of collective practices aimed at realizing non-artistic goals: gaining legitimacy, fighting competitors, and acquiring symbolic power. However, sometimes collective statements and interactions serve to reveal the creative potential of both the entire group and its individual members. For surrealists, the period of “creative collective interactions” falls mainly on the 1920s, and the group in this period is perceived as a field of artistic experiment. Together, surrealists create a number of works, hone techniques and develop a surreal canon. The influence of collective thinking on individual creativity in the 1920s leads to the fact that the surrealists begin to introduce references to the members of the group into non-collective works, actually turning them into heroes of the novel, now making them part of a mutable surreal text.
Examples of such inclusion of group members in an artistic text can be considered works of R. Desnos “Rrose Sélavy” and J.-A. Boiffard “Nomenclature”: in them, the authors deliberately introduce the names of the surrealists, in order to then transform them in the spirit of automatic writing. On the one hand, the appearance of proper names in the texts serves to consolidate the group, create and strengthen intra-group ties, but, on the other hand, such “quoting” is a guarantee of surrealism and confirms the materiality of the word game. Being a part of the surreal world, the surrealist by his presence in it proves the reality of its existence.
Nowadays, when English has firmly established itself as a lingua franca (ELF) in academic settings, it is very important to study the features of texts written by L2 speakers who come from a variety of cultural and L1 backgrounds and who use ELF in their academic communication. The present study focuses on clusters of epistemic stance expressions used in research articles written by L2 speakers. The analysis of 20 papers from the SciELF corpus reveals the patterns in the use of epistemic stance clusters, their distribution in different sections of research articles and the functions the clusters perform at the textual level. The results show that there are many similarities in the distribution and functions of epistemic stance clusters in texts. It suggests that the way L2 speakers who are professionals in their fields express epistemic stance is more influenced by the norms of the genre and the discipline than by their L1 and cultural backgrounds.
The paper analyzes the interaction of metaphor and metonymy, known as metaphtonymy, and its functioning in
the context on the basis of verbs with semantics “to separate”. It discusses the main models of metaphtonimic
projection: metaphor and metonymy; metonymy–metaphor–metonymy; metaphor based on metonymy (partially
or fully); metonymy based on metaphors. The relevance of this study lies in the lack of study of cognitive values
from the standpoint of metaphor and metonymy interaction in conditions of intersection of verbs close in meaning
with semantics “to separate”. The novelty of this work lies, firstly, in the consideration of the mechanism of
formation of the basic cognitive schemas of metaphtonymic meanings, in how the phrase can acquire a new or
additional meaning depending on the location of words in the context, and secondly, it is the study of the
mechanism of metaphtonymy formation in conditions of intersection of close verbs with the semantics “to
Metaphors and metonymies are effective means of conceptualizing new elements of the modern worldview, since
as concepts become more complex, the mechanisms of naming the surrounding reality become more complex too.
Metaphtonymy is an example of such more complex structures. The basis of metaptonymy (the term is proposed
by L. Goossens (1990)) is based on the principles of integration processes of metaphorical and metonymic blending.
Such a complex unit can combine the properties of both metaphors and metonyms. More recent studies have
provided more refined and systematic patterns of interaction between metaphor and metonymy (cf. Ruiz de
Mendoza and Galera-‐Masegosa, 2011). However, our corpus of analysis suggests that further developments are
needed in order to fully account for the complexities of verb with semantics of separation interpretation.
Following J. Lakoff, L. Goossens, metaphor is considered as the projection of elements of different conceptual
domains: the source domain and the target domain, metonymy is understood as a projection of adjacent elements
of one conceptual domain [Lakoff, 1987; Gossens, 2002]. A cognitive approach to analysis of metaphor and
metonymy can be considered as conceptual interaction in the complex and reach to metaphtonimic modeling. Also
this approach reveals the interaction of metaphors and metonymy as a complex mechanism of the formation of
meanings, as realized in context. The results of this study can contribute to the theory of metaphor, metonymy,
secondary language nomination.
The book‘s main objective is developing academic writing and speaking
skills, namely teaching students to write a proposal of their research and to orally
present its conception. The book is mainly intended for undergraduate and graduate
students of the faculty of law of Higher School of Economics.
―Project Proposal Guide: How to Write and Present (Law Disciplines)‖ is
divided into three parts. The first part is theoretical and explains characteristics of
the genre of project proposal. The second part ―Writing a project proposal‖
contains eight chapters, each devoted to a particular part of an academic paper
(abstract, introduction, literature review etc.). The third part ―Oral presentation of a
project proposal‖ consists of two units devoted to PowerPoint and poster
presentations, correspondingly. The book is also provided with additional materials:
a questionnaire that enables students to evaluate their level of academic skills
development and samples of projects‘ chapters with analysis.
The book can be used both in class and individually.
the article is about the problem of feminism in the political discours (on the basis of interviews of women-politicans of Germany)
This paper explores word frequency patterns when considering text length, authorship
and random distortion of texts. Through a series of experiments, we determined an
optimal text size, a phenomenon that was predicted by George Zipf, which sees a
minimal discrepancy between calculated and observed frequencies. A graphic
representation allowed a plausible explanation behind the existence of this
phenomenon. Working on the assumption that distorted texts might disobey Zipf's Law,
we explored correlations among frequencies and text entirety compared to text
distortions. Results revealed the crucial role of text length for maintaining Zipfian
distribution: randomly chosen sets of words and fragmentary texts of optimal size still
obey Zipf's Law. Findings show that authorship manifests itself through the author
constant, defined as the relative frequency of the most frequent words, which remains
constant throughout the works of any given author, including randomly chosen text
chunks and fragments of sentences of various sizes.
The paper is concerned with a comparative analysis of selected German and English fixed phrases with the somatic component Faust (Germ.) and fist (Engl.) aimed at revealing cross-language relations in terms of their identical and different componential structures of meaning as well as determining their national and cultural specificity. Overall, 28 German and 20 English phraseological units were selected for the further analytic investigation after being classified as nominal, adjectival, adverbial and verbal, with lexical and grammatical meaning of different parts of speech being prioritized. It should be pointed out that technical terms and German compounds were not included in the analysis. Based on the principle of interrelation between person and language, in this work we are guided by the idea of integration of linguo-cognitive and linguo-culturological aspects.
The student's book is based on the CLIL approach to teaching and teaches case study solving skills via English language learning. Such an approach creates positive environment for students to master new knowledges and skills.
The present paper tackles the question of smell semantics and semiotics in the context of intimate communication of sexes. The authors analyze the linguistic representation of different characteristics of woman's artificial smell and identify specific features of single lexemes’ use for the transmission of olfactory sensations. Analysis shows that the main ways of describing smell are:
1) hedonic odor assessment - evaluation by the "pleasant / unpleasant" criterion,
2) naming the smell-reference (riecht nach / Geruch von),
3) metaphorical transfer, especially to other sensory spheres (synesthesia), which distinguishes situationally significant signs of odor.
These language devices are used with approximately equal frequency and depend on individual olfactory preferences and on being included in a certain context. This fact is especially relevant for the study of smell representation in the intimate, often irrational reality of lovers’ communication.
When describing smell in the romantic discourse - one of lovers’ communication - the main thematic area is the nomination of a physiological impact on a partner who feels the existential necessity of perceiving the smell of the beloved woman and desire for physical affinity. This effect is verbalized by metaphors which represent women’s smell as an omnipresent peremptory aggressor pursuing the man in love, penetrating into his consciousness, owning his memories, destroying his moral foundations, manipulating his biological essence.
The smell is also often perceived as a poisonous substance that stupefies, deafens and intoxicates, emphasizing the insidious nature of the female smell, which acts on the invisible "front" secretly as a hidden saboteur.
An important means of describing female artificial smell in romantic discourse is the sensory-emotional synesthesia that represents the smell as a thirst quencher or a veil enveloping the beloved person with an invisible cloud. The smell of a beloved woman is delicious and sweet, gentle and sensual; its assessment takes the entire positive scale from "good" to "divine".
The symbolic component of woman's smell is largely determined by her axiological perception, represented by evaluative adjectives that characterize the behavior, the way of life of a woman, and evaluate her as a whole. Adjectives are, in addition, a means of verbal presentation of woman’s gender identity with an emphasis on the importance of self-presentation, "adornment" with pleasant smells.
In conclusion, the authors give a textual representation of the cognitive model of the female artificial smell, which connects all linguistic facts described above into a single logically connected scenario. This model demonstrates the scope and the internal semantic content of the subject area.
The article is devoted to the study of dialogue in the surrealist work “The Process of Barres” and its role in the construction of the collective identity. The surrealists turn the dialogue into a meta-technique: on the one hand, it is often used as a creative tool, with its help collective works are created and surreal practices are transformed; on the other hand, the focus on dialogue within the group characterizes the special forms of social interaction among the surrealists. In this paper, we will talk about group communication and how collective dialogue, imposing moral and ethical restrictions on participants, forms collective identity and prepares the final break of Breton’s group with DADA.
There are a number of theoretical frameworks that lend themselves to interpreting textual meanings socially. These include Critical Discourse Analysis, Functional Stylistics and various schools of genre analysis both in this country and abroad. One of the most important albeit not conceptually unambiguous terms across these various approaches is genre. The term bears witness to the well-established idea that many instances of discourse often exhibit similar features in terms of language selections and textual strategies. In terms of genre, this is said to be attributable to similar communicative contexts that discourse enacts. Another term that also cuts across many approaches is the term discourse itself used broadly to signify the language use in general and/or specific texts seen as embedded in their communicative contexts. However, it seems that many studies could benefit from exploring genres drawing on the term discourse in its distinct Foucauldian sense as particular ways of representing the world. Indeed, by doing so discourse and genre can be used to generalize about different textual properties of one and the same text and/or type of texts, which allows to locate the text/type not only in the immediate communicative context but in the larger sociocultural practice as well. This is especially important when the study of genres in terms of linguistic variation is meant to complement the study of the same genres as a social phenomenon at large. One such constellation of genres that can benefit from this approach is lifestyle media, which is a relatively new phenomenon owing its recent surge in popularity largely to the development of the Internet. Lifestyle media has been extensively explored from social and cultural perspectives but only marginally so from the perspective of linguistic variation. The purpose of this article is therefore to explore specific textual features of one lifestyle media genre, thus outlining a framework for subsequent analysis of similar texts. Drawing on the theoretical framework of critical discourse analysis, a sample text from a popular men’s online magazine was analyzed in terms of its lexicogrammatical properties. The results indicate that some of these properties are attributable to the ways this text figure in a specific communicative situation and is used to act discoursally in it. Other properties reflect a certain repertoire of meanings associated with consumer culture and its discourse in general. This mapping of textual features onto actional and representational meanings contributes to the critical study of texts as configurations of genres and discourses. In a broader perspective, the results can illustrate how textual features reflect both professional practice of lifestyle journalism and consumer culture that this practice is arguably embedded in.
The early 19th century Russian literature witnessed the appearance of texts entitled 'legenda' (legend) and 'predanie' (tradition). The fact that by the end of the 19th century the genres had fully developed their pattern indicates that the genre labels signaled the genres emergence. The paper compares short prosaic texts named as legends and traditions by V.F. Odoevskii, N.A. Polevoi and N.V. Kukol’nik (1820s-1840s). The aim of the research is to ascertain whether the generic strategies chosen by the writers are different or similar. The analysis considers texts modality, narrative system, setting, plot structure. Legends written by Odoevskii are embedded texts, while traditions are complete narratives. It contrasts the texts in the modality perspective, as the legend is positioned as a less verisimilar narrative, while the tradition is supposed to be true. The effect is strengthened by the choice of personified narrator in the legend and omniscient narrator in the tradition. The setting of the legend is historical and domestic, with the legend offering a mythpoeic version of historical events easily recognized by the reader. The tradition uses an exotic and a conventional setting, and the text is a myth stylization. Legends and tradition by Polevoi are centered round historical events, but the author's objectives are different. The legends present some episodes from Russian and Byzantine history, the information about which is drawn from written sources and complemented with the author's imagination. By doing it Polevoi targets at rethinking history and tracing some logic behind it. The legends are devoid of suspense, as their content and outcome are well known. The purpose of the tradition is to entertain the reader by telling an adventure story based on oral speculations. It is emphasized by the personal attitude towards the setting and by looking at the past from the present standpoint. Kukol'nik's legends and his tradition also belong to historical prose. The legends are based on real sources and communicate to the reader some forgotten or lost text. Unlike the legends, the tradition offers the reader an alternative version of historical events which contradicts official documents. Despite the element of mysticism, the legend is presented as relating authentic events, whereas the tradition is not positioned as verisimilar, as the author never refers to any sources. Odoevskii, Polevoi and Kuko''nik construe the concept of 'legend' and 'tradition’ differently. However, it is obvious that in the oeuvre of each of them the texts called 'legends' and 'traditions' reveal the usage of different genre strategies.
The paper makes the first attempt at analyzing I. Turgenev’s tale Clara Militch as a pretext for A. France’s Leslie Wood. France uses Turgenev’s text in several ways, taking plot elements (the motives of chaste marriage, physical love between the protagonist and his dead lover, the death of the protagonist), borrowing the personages system and citing Turgenev’s characters directly. These borrowings prove that France consciously alluded to Turgenev’s tale. The borrowings so numerous allowed us to look at Leslie Wood as a certain interpretation of Clara Militch. Still, France’s perception of Turgenev’s tale seems to have been different from that of the contemporary critics. He was not interested in either historic or cultural context, nor in the psychoanalytic aspect of the tale. Instead, France concentrated on the theme of mystic love, the interaction between the male and the female, interpreting these aspects in his own way. While physical love stars the heroine, Leslie Wood is built around the man’s feelings and actions. Turgenev’s heroine displays a bright, even demonic personality, whereas France’s character obediently follows her husband. France does not stress the fatality of love beyond grave, but rather studies its role in the progress of the human soul. Placed among the other stories of the cycle L’Étui de nacre, many of which also deal with the theme of love and death and chaste marriage, Turgenev’s plot becomes another point of view in the complex narrative system of the cycle. Still, looking at Leslie Wood with the view of Clara Militch softens France’s irony, showing the characters in a more dramatic, tragic light.
The article investigates the textualization of the categories “Us” and “Them” in American presidential rhetoric in two interrelated ways: as an inventory of lexicogrammatical resources specific to this genre and their contextualized use as a tool for legitimizing political decisions. To this purpose, several speeches by Donald Trump and George W. Bush have been analyzed. Methodologically the study draws on the discourse analytical toolkit which involves exploring evaluative labels for category members, as well as metaphors, leitmotifs (or topoi), and syllogisms. These various language resources are not treated separately but rather as making up two distinct discourse strategies.
The analysis shows that one pervasive discourse strategy in the sample is the strategy of out-casting the “evil other”. The primary means of out-casting and populating this category is negative evaluative lexis, which is extensively used for naming and identifying the members of the “evil” out-group. Another persistent exponent of this strategy is a set of leitmotifs, which are used to attribute certain qualities and features to out-group members and characterize their actions. The most salient leitmotifs in rhetoric of both presidents are threat and killing the innocent, which are very frequent in any references to terrorists, who are the core members of the out-group. It is worth noting that the usage of these linguistic resources is very consistent within this genre of presidential rhetoric irrespective of who the rhetor is and the specific historical context.
Further analysis of the sample shows that out-casting is inextricably linked to another pervasive discourse strategy: legitimation of going to or continuing the war in a given country. For Trump, it is primarily the military campaign in Afghanistan, while for Bush the target country was primarily Iraq. In both cases the legitimation of the contradictory move seems to hinge largely on whether the country in question can be convincingly placed into the “Them” category. Linguistically, the most popular way to do so is through the leitmotif of “safe haven”, which is used to indicate that a certain country houses, supports, and is, indeed, a safe haven for terrorists. Interestingly, the category seems to be structured as a fuzzy set, with the inclusion into the outgroup being, as it were, a matter of degree. Thus, in Trump’s speech Pakistan is construed as a member of the outgroup only to some extent, which translates into less strict measures directed against it. At the core of legitimation strategy is argumentation that relies on syllogisms. The assumed major premises of syllogisms used by both presidents are very similar, which makes them a type of leitmotifs. These leitmotifs are arguably also part of the genre’s inventory of rhetorical resources albeit the ones that are never expressed in the surface structure and have no language associated with them.