On this separate page there is an archive with all the activities of the scientific and educational group "Languages of description of the other in Early Modern Europe: social contexts and interpretation repertoires".
Presentations with abstracts
1) Fyodorov S. Levin F. ‘Native tradition and the limits of collective identity of the Insular Celts’ - 02/04/2021 Conference "Loyalty, Citizenship, Citizenship: between Empire and Nation" St. Petersburg State University/Higher School of Economics, Saint Petersburg
The paper focuses on the specifics of the research into the phenomenon of the collective identities in preindustrial Celtic societies or in so-called pre-modern era. We will attempt to demonstrate that the current understanding of this phenomenon is in need of considerable revision. The contemporary perception of this issue, essential for the humanities and social sciences, is characterized by a certain teleological approach: contemporary historians tend to look upon collective identities of medieval Europe through the lens of practices and realities which determined the functionality of this phenomenon in the modernized societies in the 19th-20th centuries.
We define “native” institutions as a set of practices originating from pan-Celtic, and in some aspects – from Indo-European, tradition which regulated daily activities of insular or Western Celts, and which remained intact throughout the whole mediaeval period until their abolition in the epoch of conquests and assimilation in the Early Modern time.
Native tradition and the limits of collective identity of the Insular Celts (PDF, 24,74 Мб)
2) Levin F. Aristotelian and Ciceronian theory of politics and Geoffrey Keating: challenging the discourse of English domination in Ireland – 03/01/2021 Colloquium of the project 'Classical Influences and Irish culture’, Aarhus University, Denmark
The paper is concerned with direct and indirect influences of Classical authorities mediated by medieval and early modern commentators on the system of argumentation which empowered both proponents of English domination in Ireland and its native opponents including Geoffrey Keating. It discusses Keating’s text in the same vein as contemporary historians examine how discovery of the Classical texts in the Renaissance, particularly Aristotle and Cicero, modified the modes of political thinking in Europe, and demonstrates how Aristotelian and Ciceronian ideas reflected in the writings of some authors with whom Geoffrey Keating entered into polemics contributed to the English discourse of domination in Ireland.
Aristotelian and Ciceronian theory of politics and Geoffrey Keating (PDF, 15,14 Мб)
3) Fyodorov S. Levin F. Cultural practices and local identities in early modern Britain’ – 05/20/2021, "National figurations and personifications in early modern Europe”, German Historical Institute, Paris
This paper contributes to the debate about the influence of the ‘state’ and ‘acculturation’ on the process of formation of early modern protonational identities as exemplified by early modern Britain. Historiography agrees that British composite monarchy was able to buttress self-esteem of each of the constituent nationalities, fixing their territorial and cultural identities [B.Bradshaw]. At the same time, it still considers the development of identity processes in early modern Britain as an internal conflict between epochalism (discourse consolidating collective identities, socially deprovincializing but psychologically forced) and essentialism (focused on cultivation of local culture and distinctions, socially isolating), from the perspective of Geertzian terminology. In this context, British identity was regarded as epochalist, whereas other ethnocultural identities as essentialist. In our opinion, the traditional concept of essentialism in historiography, which treats the emerging territorial Irish, Scottish and Welsh identities as separatist and conflictual [B.Bradshaw, N. Canny, C. Kidd], cannot fully explain the development of identity processes in early modern Britain. There is a need to reconsider the relationship between epochalism and essentialism in early modern Britain and to regard the emergence of essentialist identities as a form of integration into British composite monarchy. In our paper we are going to concentrate on expressions of British and Irish identity in late Tudor-early Stuart period.
Cultural practices and local identities in early modern Britain (PDF, 18,92 Мб)
4) Irina Yakovleva. The Return of Antiquity in "Britain" by William Camden – 04/29/2021, the meeting of the SEG "Languages of the description of the other in Early Modern Europe: social contexts and repertoires of interpretation"
From the report, the seminar participants learned what and why Galfrid of Monmouth was wrong, how one of the leading English antiquaries of the XVII century defined "barbarism" and how antiquarian knowledge mastered the British space.
Возвращение Античности в «Британии» Уильяма Кемдена (PDF, 513 Кб)
5) Irina Yakovleva. Scottish nobility in "Britain" by William Camden – 09/17/2021, conference "Languages of Social Description in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times" (HSE SPb)
An analysis of the construction of images of Ireland and Scotland allows us to conclude that Camden's "Britain" offers a narrative that unites British composites, but at the same time preserves their local features. The edition of 1607 and its translation into English of 1610 are also contextually related to the political project of James I to create a composite monarchy: the unification of several composites under the rule of one monarch. Camden supports the idea of the union of England and Scotland, which influences his construction of the image of Scotland: when describing the past, he emphasizes unifying, not separating plots. A similar strategy for the unification of Scotland and England can be traced in the image of the Scottish nobility, which is the main topic of this report. Camden portrays the Scottish nobility as included in the British system of titles and loyal to the king of "Great Britain" James I. Representatives of the Scottish nobility act as actors in both British and local history. Camden does not idealize the relations of the nobility and the king both in the past and in the present, mentioning conspiracies, among which the most recent was the conspiracy of Count Gowrie, but also does not exaggerate conflicts that would obscure the peacemaking function of James I.
Шотландская знать в «Британии» Уильяма Кэмдена (PDF, 1,34 Мб)
6) Yakovleva Irina. "Iam cuncti gens una sumus": the image of Scotland in "Britain" by William Camden - 10/23/2021, conference "Scotland in Modern and Modern Times: Political culture, Ideas, Conflicts" (MSU)
The division of Scotland, the image of which is considered in this report, was significantly transformed after the discontent of Scottish intellectuals with the first edition of Britannia in 1586; but the accession of James I to the throne influenced the editions of 1607 and 1610 more significantly. The examination of the image of Scotland in the work of William Camden demonstrates how English intellectuals responded to the political project of James I to unite the kingdoms of England and Scotland, how and in what terms they represented the history and geography of Scotland.
«Iam cuncti gens una sumus»: образ Шотландии в «Британии» Уильяма Кэмдена (PDF, 677 Кб)
7) Nikita Malinovsky. Private socio-economic relations with Hanseatic merchants in Novgorod at the end of the XV - beginning of the XVI centuries: problems and review of sources - 04/29/2021, meeting of the SEG "Languages of description of the other in Early Modern Europe: social contexts and repertoires of interpretation"
The report examines the socio-economic events in the German courtyard of St. St. Peter's in Novgorod at the end of the XV - first quarter of the XVI centuries, which are reflected in the materials of the congresses of Hanseatic cities, in Hanseatic correspondence, as well as in visual material. The analysis is carried out to illustrate the social processes that occurred in Novgorod after the intervention of the Moscow state in the Baltic "world-economy", consisting of the triangle "Novgorod-Pskov-Livonia". The author gives a brief context of events from the XIII century . by the last third of the XV century . to represent the gradual development of Novgorod-Hanseatic relations, and then examines the socio-economic events before the closure of St. Peter's Court in 1494 and after its opening in 1514. The report pays special attention to the topic of the clash of the legal Novgorod-Hanseatic "antiquity" and the emerging documentary legal tradition of the XVI century, which is characteristic of emerging political entities, or rather centralized states.
Проблематика и обзор источников (PDF, 1,82 Мб)
8) Nikita Malinovsky. Private socio-economic relations with Hanseatic merchants in Novgorod at the end of the XV - beginning of the XVI centuries: features of the written language of description – 06/28/2021, meeting of the SEG "Languages of description of the other in Early Modern Europe: social contexts and repertoires of interpretation"
The report examines in detail the features of the written language of the late XV century and the first quarter of the XVI century, which the Hanseatic merchants used to describe relations with the Russians. The author cites the published original texts with translation into Russian and, based on the analysis of these fragments, formulates hypotheses that will be developed in the course of future research work in the Scientific and Educational Group.
Особенности письменного языка описания (PDF, 677 Кб)
9) Nikita Malinovsky. Private socio-economic relations with Hanseatic merchants in Novgorod in the late XV - early XVI centuries - 09/17/2021, conference "Languages of Social Description in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times" HSE -- St. Petersburg
The report examines the dynamics of changes in social processes that occurred in Novgorod after the intervention of the Moscow state in the Baltic "world economy". To do this, the author analyzes the socio-economic events in the German courtyard of St. Peter in Novgorod at the end of the XV - first quarter of the XVI centuries, which are reflected in the materials of the congresses of Hanseatic cities, Hanseatic correspondence, as well as visual material. The analysis of the sources, which took place within the framework of the topic of the scientific and educational group "Languages of describing the other in Early Modern Europe: social contexts and interpretation repertoires", allows us to draw the following conclusions. First, in the first half of the XVI century. it is already quite difficult to determine with whom exactly the Hanseaticians traded - with Novgorodians or Muscovites who had already lived in Novgorod for a long time, and therefore the Hanseaticians began to divide legal practices by regional type (so the term "Muscovite law" appears). Secondly, the emerging documentary legal tradition of the XVI century, which is characteristic of emerging political entities, or rather centralized states, made adjustments to the understanding of Hanseatic trade in "antiquity" based on oral custom, which often caused conflicts.
Частные социально-экономические отношения с ганзейскими купцами в Новгороде (PDF, 1,82 Мб)
10) Anastasia Novikova, January - speech at the meeting of the SEG
Anastasia Novikova, a 4th-year student of the History Department of the HSE of St. Petersburg, will present a report on the image of Muscovy in French-speaking sources of the XVII century. The report will highlight several sources about Muscovy in France of the XVII century, with the help of which it is possible to refute the widespread opinion that French Russian originates only in the XVIII century, since before that there was no interest in Muscovy in France.Through the analysis of periodicals, diplomatic notes, diaries of travelers and the works of armchair scientists posted on the website of the French National Library BNF-Gallica, Novikova wants to demonstrate that French Russika (Moscovitika - according to M. Po) dates back to the XVII century. The report will examine the image of Muscovy, certain features of the language of description (due to the specifics of the genre), the mechanisms of inclusion of Muscovy in a militarily consolidated Europe. Finally, a certain evolution of the image in French texts will be shown.
Образ Московии во французских источниках XVII века (PDF, 2,48 Мб)
11) Anastasia Novikova, "The Image of Muscovy in French-speaking sources of the XVII century– - 09/17/2021, conference "Languages of Social Description in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times" HSE -- St. Petersburg
The prevailing opinion in historiography is that the image of Muscovy in French-speaking sources of the XVII century is based on several translations of foreign books and diaries by Margeret and Neville. Researchers say that France and Muscovy were very little interested in each other before the XVIII century, but I argue that their mutual interest began earlier. Analyzing periodicals, diaries of diplomats and travelers, as well as the works of cabinet scientists posted on the BNF-Gallica website, I assert that French Russika (Moscovitika) existed already at the beginning of the XVII century: the image of Muscovy was complete, information about it was extensive. In general, I determined a certain general image of Muscovy and the features of the language of description, proceeding from the specifics of each chosen genre, studied the mechanisms of inclusion of Muscovy in a militarily consolidated Europe. In particular, the paper analyzes the communication channels through which information about Muscovy came to France, and establishes the role of Poland and Amsterdam as one of the leading places-translators of knowledge about Muscovy.
Образ Московии (PDF, 2,79 Мб)
12) Anastasia Afanasyeva, "The role of virtus and fortuna in the work 'Historiae florentini populi' by Leonardo Bruni– - 17.09.2021, conference "Languages of Social Description in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times" HSE -- St. Petersburg
Роль virtus и fortuna в сочинении 'Historiae florentini populi' (PDF, 434 Кб)
13) Sergey Baigushev, Alexandra Shisterova, Irina Yakovleva – 09/18/2020, ninth meeting of the SEG "Languages of the description of the other in Early Modern Europe: social contexts and interpretation repertoires"
The group introduced other members of the scientific and educational group to the image of the Irish people in the sources of the late Tudor and early Stuart eras. The entire English discourse of this period justified the need for the incorporation of Ireland into the British imperial space, but the authors of the sources proposed radically different ways of doing this. Phineas Morison, a hereditary nobleman and witness to the suppression of the Irish rebellion by Hugh O'Neill, promoted an exclusively forceful method of solving the problem. John Davis, a lawyer, put the inclusion of the Irish into English existence with the help of laws at the forefront. Barnaby Rich, a Protestant soldier, was thinking about a religious path. All texts portray the Irish as barbarians, prone to rebellion and treachery, and the local governance scheme is characterized as tyranny.
Обзор источников: Ирландия (PDF, 130 Кб)
14) Alexandra Shisterova, Irina Yakovleva – 04/15/2020, the fourth meeting of the SEG "Languages of the description of the other in Early Modern Europe: social contexts and interpretation repertoires"
The performance of the group was devoted to the differences and similarities in the description of Irlans in these works. During the discussion, it was emphasized that Morison appeals to the "natural" barbarism of the local population and makes arguments in favor of the violent suppression of the Irish, while Davis explains the "barbarism" by incorrect customs and laws and proves that the civilization of the Irish is possible through the spread of common law. In addition, the participants touched upon the problem of the authors' religious identity and their education.
Образ ирландцев в раннестюартовских источниках (PDF, 198 Кб)
15) Daria Zubkova, Alyona Kuznetsova, Maxim Shkil – 09/18/2020, ninth meeting of the SEG "Languages of the description of the other in Early Modern Europe: social contexts and interpretation repertoires"
The Balkan group identified similarities and cardinal differences between the texts based on the analysis of sources. They managed to identify parallels between Paul Raikot and Peter Mandi: they often refer to contemporary works about the Turks and, unlike Pietro Coppo and Pietro della Valle, do not appeal to the ancient past of the territories described.
Поул Райкот, Петро делла Валле и Пьетро Коппо (PDF, 1,48 Мб)
Meetings of the scientific and educational group
Scientific and practical seminars
Seminars "Actual European Middle Ages and Early Modern Times"
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