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Сross-Cultural Communication

Учебный год
Обучение ведется на английском языке
Курс по выбору
Когда читается:
3-й курс, 3, 4 модуль


Course Syllabus


The key aim of the course is to provide students with knowledge and skills in cross-cultural communication, negotiations and doing business with the partners, representing different cultures, to develop cultural awareness and to make students immune to various cultural stereotypes. The course introduces students to different models of communication and basic aspects of cross-cultural classifications and research.
Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Course objectives - to clarify the basic concept of cross-cultural management;
  • - to provide tools for the analysis of business communication and interaction;
  • - to create the ability to plan and perform research projects in the field of cross-cultural communication;
  • - to develop the skills in the sphere of cross-cultural analysis,
  • - to develop the understanding of the impact of cross-cultural differences in business.
Expected Learning Outcomes

Expected Learning Outcomes

  • Develop the knowledge of basic aspects of intercultural differences, models and classifications of culture and cultural clusters and dimensions.
  • Acquire knowledge concerning methodology of cross-cultural research.
  • To diagnose cross-cultural aspects of business situation and to align them with business strategy and decision-making.
  • To use principles of culturally sensitive decision making
  • To be prepared for conducting ethical and culturally aware cross-cultural communication, incorporating information concerning cultural differences and specifics and showing persuasion skills.
  • To be able to find and use the most recent information concerning intercultural differences and to be sensitive to ethical issues.
Course Contents

Course Contents

  • 1 Cultures, subcultures, countercultures, ethnocentrism
    Globalization and interconnectedness. Classification of cultures. Samuel Huntington: Civilizations. Dominant culture and co-culture. Primary elements of non-material culture: History, Religion, Social organizations, Language. Methodology of cross-cultural research.
  • Topic 2. Elements of culture: values, worldviews, attitudes and beliefs, traditions, myths.
    Material and non-material culture, values and their significance. Milton Rokeach ends-values and means-values. Worldviews, integrating values and attitudes. Cultural traditions and models of behavior. Cultural diffusion. Significance and persistence of cultural myths.
  • Topic 3. Cultures, cultural clusters or “civilizations”, nationalism and civil religions
    Cultural values dimensions and classification. Schwartz, ESS: cross-cultural research of values and personal traits. Ingelhart: modernization theory, World Values Survey (WVS), dimensions: “traditional vs. secular-rational values” and “survival vs. self-expression values. Hofstede cultural dimensions and GLOBE project: Power distance index (PDI), Individualism (IDV) vs. collectivism, Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI), Masculinity (MAS), vs. femininity, Long-term orientation (LTO), vs. short term orientation, Indulgence versus restraint (IVR). Robert Bellah: civil religion.
  • Topic 4. Cultural biases and stereotypes
    Prejudice. Discrimination. Stereotype. Cognitive and social functions of stereotypes (explanation, justification, social differentiation). Factors and mechanisms of stereotype formation (correspondence bias, illusory correlation, common environment, socialization and upbringing, intergroup relations). Self-fulfilling prophecy. Scape-goating. Face-ism. Dealing with stereotypes.
  • Topic 5. McLuhan, uncertainty management, communication competence
    Marshall McLuhan’s imperatives for cross-cultural communication: technological, economic, demographic, personal, ethical, peace. Reasons for cultural differences: history, ecology, technology, biology, institutional networks, interpersonal communication patterns. Uncertainty avoidance (Berger) and three strategies for dealing with uncertainty.
  • Topic 6. The Deep Structure of Culture: Roots of Reality
    Deep structures of any culture (family, history, and religion) define, create, transmit, maintain, and reinforce the basic elements of every culture. Forms and functions of family. Individualistic and collectivistic families. History: a) explains character of the culture; b) helps remember and transmit events and articles. Arthur Schlesinger: history cycles. Features and types of religions. BASIC by Margaret Olebe.
  • Topic 7. Artefacts, narratives, rituals.
    Artifacts, narratives and rituals as descriptors of deep structures. Artifacts as tangible manifestations of values. Cyclical relationship between artifacts and culture. Types of artifacts: music, art, literature, movies and TV, foods, dance, sports, media, dress and decoration, holidays. Components of Narratives: characters, plots, outcomes, ACTION. Types of narratives. Rituals and their functions: showing commitment, giving access, building trust, indicating social relationships.
  • Topic 8. Identities, personal, cultural.
    Stella Ting-Toomey’s definition of identity as a “reflective self-conception or self-image”. Identity as a dynamic phenomenon. Multiple identities: human, social, personal. Specifics of racial, ethnic, gender, national, regional, organizational, personal and cyber and fantasy identities. Stages of identity formation. Identity manifestations in communication.
  • Topic 9. Language, verbal intercultural communication
    Functions of language: social interaction, social cohesion, expression of identity. Language variations: accent, dialect, argot, slang. Conversational taboos. Cultural considerations in interpretation and translation. Recommendations for communications with people, using second language (mindfulness, speech rate, vocabulary and nonverbal feedback). Most influential languages in contemporary world and their specifics: Chinese, Spanish,English, Arabic, and Russian.
  • Topic 10. Nonverbal communication
    The functions of nonverbal communication: expressing internal state, creating identity, regulating interaction, repeating the message, substituting for words. Intentional and nonintentional messages. Ambiguity and multiple meanings in nonverbal communication. Classification of nonverbal communication means: appearance, body movement (posture, gestures), facial expression, eye contact and gaze, touch, paralanguage, vocal qualities (volume, rate, pitch, tempo, resonance, pronunciation, tone). Space and distance, personal space. Sense of time: monochronic or polychronic. Silence and its significance in different cultures.
  • Topic 11. Intercultural relations and communication
    Worldview is a culture’s orientation toward God, humanity, nature, the universe, life, death, sickness, and other philosophical issues concerning existence. Worldviews and their impact on communication. Reconciling historical disagreements. Ethical issues in cross-cultural relations. Immigration and other phenomena of intercultural penetration. Problems related to acculturation. Perception in conflicts. Monitoring actions and counter-actions.
  • Topic 12. Intercultural conflicts
    Basic aspects or conflict situation. Communication norms and models in conflict situations. Conflict sequence. The factors, facilitating and complicating conflict resolution. Reframing conflict situation: conflict as an opportunity. Persuasion in conflict interaction. Cross-cultural competence in conflict resolution and collaborative problem-solving.
  • Topic 13. Nature of negotiation: strategizing, framing, planning
    Bargaining and negotiation. Attributes of negotiation situation. Alternatives to negotiation. Tangibles and intangibles in negotiations. Planning negotiations. Negotiating individually and in teams. Preparing for negotiations. Perception and empathy in negotiations. Competent negotiator’s qualities.
  • Topic 14. Strategy and tactics of distributive bargaining
    Distributive negotiations (Win-Lose). Target point, walk-away or resistance point, initial offer. Give-and-take process. Tactics of distributive negotiations: Auction, Brinksmanship, Bogey, Defense in Depth, Deadlines, Flinch, Good Guy/Bad Guy, Highball/Lowball, The Nibble, Snow Job, Foot-in-the-Door, Door-in-the-Face
  • Topic 15. Strategy and tactics of integrative bargaining
    Integrative negotiations (Win-Win). Positions and interests. Cooperative problem-solving. Separating the person from the problem. Tactics of integrative negotiations: Expanding Pie, Bridging, Logrolling. Claiming value and creating value.
  • Topic 16. Finding and using negotiation leverage
    Power in negotiations. Sources of power: Reward: Raises, perks, promotions; Coercive: Punishment, firing, walk away; Legitimate: Position, approval authority; Expert: Specialized knowledge; Reference: Charisma, charm. BATNA – best alternative to negotiated agreement. Balanced and unbalanced leverage. Positive and negative leverage. Influence and persuasion tools.
  • Topic 17. Regional and national negotiation styles
    Key cultural variables, influencing negotiations (indirect dealing vs direct dealing, high-context vs low-context, relationship oriented vs task-oriented, holistic vs contractually oriented, Dimensions of negotiation styles. Competitive and problem-solving styles of negotiations. Russian, British, American, Arabic, Chinese, French, German negotiating styles. Interplay of cultural styles and personal styles of negotiating.
Assessment Elements

Assessment Elements

  • non-blocking Class Participation
  • non-blocking Intermediate presentation
  • non-blocking The final research project presentation
  • non-blocking Exam
Interim Assessment

Interim Assessment

  • Interim assessment (4 module)
    0.1 * Class Participation + 0.1 * Exam + 0.2 * Intermediate presentation + 0.6 * The final research project presentation


Recommended Core Bibliography

  • Brett, J.M. Negotiating Globally: How to Negotiate Deals, Resolve Disputes, and Make Decisions Across Cultural Boundaries / Jeanne M. Brett. – 3rd ed. – San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014. – 320 p. – ISBN 9781118602614. – Текст: электронный // DB ProQuest Ebook Central (ebrary) [сайт]. – URL: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/hselibrary-ebooks/reader.action?docID=1651185&query=negotiating%2Bglobally
  • Chen, G.-M., & Dai, X. (2014). Intercultural Communication Competence : Conceptualization and Its Development in Cultural Contexts and Interactions. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=772084
  • Cultures and Organizations, Software of the mind. Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for survival. (2010). McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsnar&AN=edsnar.oai.library.wur.nl.wurpubs.392270
  • Huntington, S. P. (1993). The Clash of Civilizations? Foreign Affairs, 72(3), 22. https://doi.org/10.2307/20045621
  • Judith N. Martin, Thomas K. Nakayama, & Martin Judith N. (n.d.). Intercultural Communication in Contexts Fifth Edition. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbas&AN=edsbas.F78FCA95
  • Leading with Cultural Intelligence : The Real Secret to Success Livermore, David AMACOM 2015
  • Moll, M. (2012). The Quintessence of Intercultural Business Communication. Berlin: Springer. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=538366
  • Moore, C. W., & Woodrow, P. J. (2010). Handbook of Global and Multicultural Negotiation (Vol. 1st ed). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=310334

Recommended Additional Bibliography

  • Brett, J. M. (2014). Negotiating globally : how to negotiate deals, resolve disputes, and make decisions across cultural boundaries / Jeanne M. Brett. San Francisco/Cal: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edswao&AN=edswao.427229790
  • Cambie, S., & Ooi, Y.-M. (2009). International Communications Strategy : Developments in Cross-Cultural Communications, PR and Social Media. London: Kogan Page. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=295337
  • Gates, S. (2016). The Negotiation Book : Your Definitive Guide to Successful Negotiating (Vol. Second edition). Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1079694
  • Gesteland, R. R. (2005). Cross-cultural Business Behavior : Negotiating, Selling, Sourcing and Managing Across Cultures. [Copenhagen, Denmark]: Samfundslitteratur Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=526885
  • Lévy-Leboyer, C. (2005). Working Across Cultures / Cultural Intelligence: A Guide to Working with People from Other Cultures. Personnel Psychology, 58(1), 253–257. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=bsu&AN=16335915
  • Matsumoto, D. R., & Hwang, H. S. (2019). The Handbook of Culture and Psychology (Vol. Second edition). New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=2126834
  • McCarthy, A., & Hay, S. (2015). Advanced Negotiation Techniques. [California]: Apress. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=958148
  • The Routledge handbook of language and intercultural communication / edited by Jane Jackson. (2012). London [u.a.]: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edswao&AN=edswao.353993638