- Course objectives - to clarify the basic concept of cross-cultural management;
- - to provide tools for the analysis of business communication and interaction;
- - to create the ability to plan and perform research projects in the field of cross-cultural communication;
- - to develop the skills in the sphere of cross-cultural analysis,
- - to develop the understanding of the impact of cross-cultural differences in business.
- 1 Cultures, subcultures, countercultures, ethnocentrismGlobalization and interconnectedness. Classification of cultures. Samuel Huntington: Civilizations. Dominant culture and co-culture. Primary elements of non-material culture: History, Religion, Social organizations, Language. Methodology of cross-cultural research.
- Topic 2. Elements of culture: values, worldviews, attitudes and beliefs, traditions, myths.Material and non-material culture, values and their significance. Milton Rokeach ends-values and means-values. Worldviews, integrating values and attitudes. Cultural traditions and models of behavior. Cultural diffusion. Significance and persistence of cultural myths.
- Topic 3. Cultures, cultural clusters or “civilizations”, nationalism and civil religionsCultural values dimensions and classification. Schwartz, ESS: cross-cultural research of values and personal traits. Ingelhart: modernization theory, World Values Survey (WVS), dimensions: “traditional vs. secular-rational values” and “survival vs. self-expression values. Hofstede cultural dimensions and GLOBE project: Power distance index (PDI), Individualism (IDV) vs. collectivism, Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI), Masculinity (MAS), vs. femininity, Long-term orientation (LTO), vs. short term orientation, Indulgence versus restraint (IVR). Robert Bellah: civil religion.
- Topic 4. Cultural biases and stereotypesPrejudice. Discrimination. Stereotype. Cognitive and social functions of stereotypes (explanation, justification, social differentiation). Factors and mechanisms of stereotype formation (correspondence bias, illusory correlation, common environment, socialization and upbringing, intergroup relations). Self-fulfilling prophecy. Scape-goating. Face-ism. Dealing with stereotypes.
- Topic 5. McLuhan, uncertainty management, communication competenceMarshall McLuhan’s imperatives for cross-cultural communication: technological, economic, demographic, personal, ethical, peace. Reasons for cultural differences: history, ecology, technology, biology, institutional networks, interpersonal communication patterns. Uncertainty avoidance (Berger) and three strategies for dealing with uncertainty.
- Topic 6. The Deep Structure of Culture: Roots of RealityDeep structures of any culture (family, history, and religion) define, create, transmit, maintain, and reinforce the basic elements of every culture. Forms and functions of family. Individualistic and collectivistic families. History: a) explains character of the culture; b) helps remember and transmit events and articles. Arthur Schlesinger: history cycles. Features and types of religions. BASIC by Margaret Olebe.
- Topic 7. Artefacts, narratives, rituals.Artifacts, narratives and rituals as descriptors of deep structures. Artifacts as tangible manifestations of values. Cyclical relationship between artifacts and culture. Types of artifacts: music, art, literature, movies and TV, foods, dance, sports, media, dress and decoration, holidays. Components of Narratives: characters, plots, outcomes, ACTION. Types of narratives. Rituals and their functions: showing commitment, giving access, building trust, indicating social relationships.
- Topic 8. Identities, personal, cultural.Stella Ting-Toomey’s definition of identity as a “reflective self-conception or self-image”. Identity as a dynamic phenomenon. Multiple identities: human, social, personal. Specifics of racial, ethnic, gender, national, regional, organizational, personal and cyber and fantasy identities. Stages of identity formation. Identity manifestations in communication.
- Topic 9. Language, verbal intercultural communicationFunctions of language: social interaction, social cohesion, expression of identity. Language variations: accent, dialect, argot, slang. Conversational taboos. Cultural considerations in interpretation and translation. Recommendations for communications with people, using second language (mindfulness, speech rate, vocabulary and nonverbal feedback). Most influential languages in contemporary world and their specifics: Chinese, Spanish,English, Arabic, and Russian.
- Topic 10. Nonverbal communicationThe functions of nonverbal communication: expressing internal state, creating identity, regulating interaction, repeating the message, substituting for words. Intentional and nonintentional messages. Ambiguity and multiple meanings in nonverbal communication. Classification of nonverbal communication means: appearance, body movement (posture, gestures), facial expression, eye contact and gaze, touch, paralanguage, vocal qualities (volume, rate, pitch, tempo, resonance, pronunciation, tone). Space and distance, personal space. Sense of time: monochronic or polychronic. Silence and its significance in different cultures.
- Topic 11. Intercultural relations and communicationWorldview is a culture’s orientation toward God, humanity, nature, the universe, life, death, sickness, and other philosophical issues concerning existence. Worldviews and their impact on communication. Reconciling historical disagreements. Ethical issues in cross-cultural relations. Immigration and other phenomena of intercultural penetration. Problems related to acculturation. Perception in conflicts. Monitoring actions and counter-actions.
- Topic 12. Intercultural conflictsBasic aspects or conflict situation. Communication norms and models in conflict situations. Conflict sequence. The factors, facilitating and complicating conflict resolution. Reframing conflict situation: conflict as an opportunity. Persuasion in conflict interaction. Cross-cultural competence in conflict resolution and collaborative problem-solving.
- Topic 13. Nature of negotiation: strategizing, framing, planningBargaining and negotiation. Attributes of negotiation situation. Alternatives to negotiation. Tangibles and intangibles in negotiations. Planning negotiations. Negotiating individually and in teams. Preparing for negotiations. Perception and empathy in negotiations. Competent negotiator’s qualities.
- Topic 14. Strategy and tactics of distributive bargainingDistributive negotiations (Win-Lose). Target point, walk-away or resistance point, initial offer. Give-and-take process. Tactics of distributive negotiations: Auction, Brinksmanship, Bogey, Defense in Depth, Deadlines, Flinch, Good Guy/Bad Guy, Highball/Lowball, The Nibble, Snow Job, Foot-in-the-Door, Door-in-the-Face
- Topic 15. Strategy and tactics of integrative bargainingIntegrative negotiations (Win-Win). Positions and interests. Cooperative problem-solving. Separating the person from the problem. Tactics of integrative negotiations: Expanding Pie, Bridging, Logrolling. Claiming value and creating value.
- Topic 16. Finding and using negotiation leveragePower in negotiations. Sources of power: Reward: Raises, perks, promotions; Coercive: Punishment, firing, walk away; Legitimate: Position, approval authority; Expert: Specialized knowledge; Reference: Charisma, charm. BATNA – best alternative to negotiated agreement. Balanced and unbalanced leverage. Positive and negative leverage. Influence and persuasion tools.
- Topic 17. Regional and national negotiation stylesKey cultural variables, influencing negotiations (indirect dealing vs direct dealing, high-context vs low-context, relationship oriented vs task-oriented, holistic vs contractually oriented, Dimensions of negotiation styles. Competitive and problem-solving styles of negotiations. Russian, British, American, Arabic, Chinese, French, German negotiating styles. Interplay of cultural styles and personal styles of negotiating.
- Class Participation
- Intermediate presentation
- The final research project presentation
- Interim assessment (4 module)0.1 * Class Participation + 0.1 * Exam + 0.2 * Intermediate presentation + 0.6 * The final research project presentation
- Brett, J.M. Negotiating Globally: How to Negotiate Deals, Resolve Disputes, and Make Decisions Across Cultural Boundaries / Jeanne M. Brett. – 3rd ed. – San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014. – 320 p. – ISBN 9781118602614. – Текст: электронный // DB ProQuest Ebook Central (ebrary) [сайт]. – URL: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/hselibrary-ebooks/reader.action?docID=1651185&query=negotiating%2Bglobally
- Leading with Cultural Intelligence : The Real Secret to Success Livermore, David AMACOM 2015
- Brett, J. M. (2014). Negotiating globally : how to negotiate deals, resolve disputes, and make decisions across cultural boundaries / Jeanne M. Brett. San Francisco/Cal: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edswao&AN=edswao.427229790
- Cambie, S., & Ooi, Y.-M. (2009). International Communications Strategy : Developments in Cross-Cultural Communications, PR and Social Media. London: Kogan Page. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=295337
- Gesteland, R. R. (2005). Cross-cultural Business Behavior : Negotiating, Selling, Sourcing and Managing Across Cultures. [Copenhagen, Denmark]: Samfundslitteratur Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=526885
- Lévy-Leboyer, C. (2005). Working Across Cultures / Cultural Intelligence: A Guide to Working with People from Other Cultures. Personnel Psychology, 58(1), 253–257. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=bsu&AN=16335915