Robot navigation through crowds poses a difficult challenge to AI systems, since the methods should result in fast and efficient movement but at the same time are not allowed to compromise safety. Most approaches to date were focused on the combination of pathfinding algorithms with machine learning for pedestrian walking prediction. More recently, reinforcement learning techniques have been proposed in the research literature. In this paper, we perform a comparative evaluation of pathfinding/prediction and reinforcement learning approaches on a crowd movement dataset collected from surveillance videos taken at Grand Central Station in New York. The results demonstrate the strong superiority of state-of-the-art reinforcement learning approaches over pathfinding with state-of-the-art behavior prediction techniques.
We present a new combined approach for monocular model-based 3D tracking. A preliminary object pose is estimated by using a keypoint-based technique. The pose is then refined by optimizing the contour energy function. The energy determines the degree of correspondence between the contour of the model projection and the image edges. It is calculated based on both the intensity and orientation of the raw image gradient. For optimization, we propose a technique and search area constraints that allow overcoming the local optima and taking into account information obtained through keypoint-based pose estimation. Owing to its combined nature, our method eliminates numerous issues of keypoint-based and edge-based approaches. We demonstrate the efficiency of our method by comparing it with state-of-the-art methods on a public benchmark dataset that includes videos with various lighting conditions, movement patterns, and speed.
Movement control of artificial limbs has made big advances in recent years. New sensor and control technology enhanced the functionality and usefulness of artificial limbs to the point that complex movements, such as grasping, can be performed to a limited extent. To date, the most successful results were achieved by applying recurrent neural networks (RNNs), However, in the domain of artificial hands, experiments so far were limited to non-mobile wrists, which significantly reduces the functionality of such prostheses. In this paper, for the first time, we present empirical results on gesture recognition with both mobile and non-mobile wrists. Furthermore, we demonstrate that recurrent neural networks with simple recurrent units (SRU) outperform regular RNNs in both cases in terms of gesture recognition accuracy, on data acquired by an arm band sensing electromagnetic signals from arm muscles (via surface electromyography or sEMG). Finally, we show that adding domain adaptation techniques to continuous gesture recognition with RNN improves the transfer ability between subjects, where a limb controller trained on data from one person is used for another person.
Learning to produce efficient movement behaviour for humanoid robots from scratch is a hard problem, as has been illustrated by the “Learning to run” competition at NIPS 2017. The goal of this competition was to train a two-legged model of a humanoid body to run in a simulated race course with maximum speed. All submissions took a tabula rasa approach to reinforcement learning (RL) and were able to produce relatively fast, but not optimal running behaviour. In this paper, we demonstrate how data from videos of human running (e.g. taken from YouTube) can be used to shape the reward of the humanoid learning agent to speed up the learning and produce a better result. Specifically, we are using the positions of key body parts at regular time intervals to define a potential function for potential-based reward shaping (PBRS). Since PBRS does not change the optimal policy, this approach allows the RL agent to overcome sub-optimalities in the human movements that are shown in the videos. We present experiments in which we combine selected techniques from the top ten approaches from the NIPS competition with further optimizations to create an high-performing agent as a baseline. We then demonstrate how video-based reward shaping improves the performance further, resulting in an RL agent that runs twice as fast as the baseline in 12 hours of training. We furthermore show that our approach can overcome sub-optimal running behaviour in videos, with the learned policy significantly outperforming that of the running agent from the video.
В статье рассматриваются комбинаторные задачи, связанные с перечислением лямбда-термов в бестиповом лямбда-исчислении, а также в просто типизированных системах с одним атомом в стиле Черча. Для случая бестипового лямбда-исчисления строится система уравнений на производящие функции, описывающие количество лямбда-термов. В случае типизированного лямбда-исчисления перечисляются как населенные типы, так и простейшие обитатели в них.