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✖Functional classes on a curve in a plane (a partial case of a spatial curve) can be described by the approximation speed by functions that are harmonic in three-dimensional neighbourhoods of the curve. No constructive description of functional classes on rather general surfaces in R3 and R4 has been presented in literature so far. The main result of the paper is Theorem 1.
In this paper, we consider the following problem - what affects the Nash equilibrium amount of investment in knowledge when one of the complete graph enters another full one. The solution of this problem will allow us to understand exactly how game agents will behave when deciding whether to enter the other net, what conditions and externalities affect it and how the level of future equilibrium amount of investments in knowledge can be predicted.
The chapter considers multistage multicriteria game in extensive form. We empoy the so-called A-subgame concept to examine the dynamical properties of come non-cooperative and cooperative solutions.
We deal with multistage multicriteria games in extensive form and employ so-called “A-subgame” concept to examine dynamical properties of some non-cooperative and cooperative solutions. It is proved that if we take into account only the active players at each A-subgame the set of all strong Pareto equilibria is time consistent but does not satisfy dynamical compatibility.
We construct an optimal cooperative trajectory and vector-valued characteristic function using the refined leximin algorithm. To ensure the sustainability of a cooperative agreement we design the A-incremental imputation distribution procedure for the Shapley value which provides a better incentive for cooperation than classical incremental allocation procedure. This specific payment schedule corresponds to the A-subgame concept satisfies time consistency and efficiency condition and implies non-zero current payment to the active player immediately after her move.
We suggest a new method on coloring generalized Kneser graphs based on hypergraphs with high discrepancy and small number of edges. The main result is providing a proper coloring of K(n, n/2−t, s) in (4 + o(1))(s + t) 2 colors, which is produced by Hadamard matrices. Also, we show that for colorings by independent set of a natural type, this result is the best possible up to a multiplicative constant. Our method extends to Kneser hypergraphs as well
Functional classes on a curve in a plane (a partial case of a spatial curve) can be described by the approximation speed by functions that are harmonic in three-dimensional neighbourhoods of the curve. No constructive description of functional classes on rather general surfaces in R 3 and R 4 has been presented in literature so far. The main result of the paper is Theorem 1.
In our previous papers (2002, 2017), we derived conditions for the existence of a strong Nash equilibrium in multistage nonzero-sum games under additional constraints on the possible deviations of coalitions from their agreed-upon strategies. These constraints allowed only one-time simultaneous deviations of all the players in a coalition. However, it is clear that in real-world problems the deviations of different members of a coalition may occur at different times (at different stages of the game), which makes the punishment strategy approach proposed by the authors earlier inapplicable in the general case. The fundamental difficulty is that in the general case the players who must punish the deviating coalition know neither the members of this coalition nor the times when each player performs the deviation. In this paper, we propose a new punishment strategy, which does not require the full information about the deviating coalition but uses only the fact of deviation of at least one player of the coalition. Of course, this punishment strategy can be realized only under some additional constraints on stage games. Under these additional constraints, it was proved that the punishment of the deviating coalition can be effectively realized. As a result, the existence of a strong Nash equilibrium in the game was established.
This article is dedicated to an alternative method of solving of the Chinese Remainder Theorem for polynomials. To construct the solution, a system of linear equations is constructed (using the method of undetermined coefficients) and then solved. The complexity of the proposed method is also calculated.
An effective calculation of the Reed-Solomon code syndrome is proposed. The method is based on the use of the partial normalized cyclic convolutions in the partial inverse cyclotomic discrete Fourier transform. The method is the best of the known algorithms, in terms of multiplicative complexity.
In the paper, a two-level infinitely repeated hierarchical game with one player (center) C0 on the first level and S1...Sn subordinate players on the second is considered. On each stage of the game player C0 selects vector x=(x1....xn) from a given set X, in which each component represents a vector of resources delivered by C0 to one of the subordinate players, i.e. (formula presented). At the second level, Si i=1,2..,n, choose the controls (formula presented), where Yi(xi) depends upon the choice of player C0. In this game, a set of different Nash equilibrium also based on threat and punishment strategies is obtained. In one case, the center enforces special behavior of subordinate firms (vector of manufactured goods), threatening to deprive them of resources on the next steps if the subordinate firms refuse to implement the prescribed behavior. In another case, the subordinate firms can force the center to use a certain resource allocation threatening to stop production. Using different combinations of such behaviors on different stages of the game, we obtain a wide class of Nash equilibrium in the game under consideration. The cooperative version of the game is also considered. The conditions are derived under which the cooperative behavior can be supported by Nash Equilibrium or Strong Nash Equilibrium (Nash Equilibrium stable against deviations of coalitions).
In each node of a network, economy is described by the simple two-period Romer’s model of endogenous growth with production and knowledge externalities. The sum of knowledge levels in the neighbor nodes causes an externality in the production of each node of the network. The game equilibrium in the network is investigated. The agents’ solutions depending on the size of externality are obtained. The uniqueness of inner equilibrium is proved. The role of passive agents in network formation is studied; in particular, the possibilities of adding a passive agent to a regular network, and also of joining of regular networks through nodes with passive agents. It is shown that the sum of knowledge levels in all the nodes decreases under adding of a new link.
Topic modeling is a popular approach for clustering text documents. However, current tools have a number of unsolved problems such as instability and a lack of criteria for selecting the values of model parameters. In this work, we propose a method to solve partially the problems of optimizing model parameters, simultaneously accounting for semantic stability. Our method is inspired by the concepts from statistical physics and is based on Sharma–Mittal entropy. We test our approach on two models: probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA) and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) with Gibbs sampling, and on two datasets in different languages. We compare our approach against a number of standard metrics, each of which is able to account for just one of the parameters of our interest. We demonstrate that Sharma–Mittal entropy is a convenient tool for selecting both the number of topics and the values of hyper-parameters, simultaneously controlling for semantic stability, which none of the existing metrics can do. Furthermore, we show that concepts from statistical physics can be used to contribute to theory construction for machine learning, a rapidly-developing sphere that currently lacks a consistent theoretical ground.
In the framework of this paper we apply multifractal formalism to the analysis of statistical behaviour of topic models under variation of the number of topics. Fractal analysis of topic models allows to show that self-similar fractal clusters exist in large textual collections. We provide numerical results for 3 topic models (PLSA, ARTM, LDA Gibbs sampling) on 2 datasets, namely, on an English-language dataset and on a Russian-language dataset. We demonstrate that forming of clusters occurs precisely in the transition regions. Linear regions do not lead to changes in fractals, therefore, it is sufficient to find transition regions for the study of textual collections. Accordingly, the problem of the analysing the evolution of topic models can be reduced to the problem of searching transition regions in topic models.
The logistic family of distributions belongs to the class of important families in the theory of probability and mathematical statistics. However, the goodness-of-fit tests for the composite hypothesis of belonging to the logistic family with unknown location parameter against the general alternatives have not been sufficiently explored. We propose two new goodness-of-fit tests: the integral and the Kolmogorov-type, based on the recent characterization of the logistic family by Hua and Lin. Here we discuss asymptotic properties of new tests and calculate their Bahadur efficiency for common alternatives.
This paper is devoted to a new class of differential games with continuous updating. It is assumed that at each time instant, players have or use information about the game defined on a closed time interval. However, as the time evolves, information about the game updates, namely, there is a continuous shift of time interval, which determines the information available to players. Information about the game is the information about motion equations and payoff functions of players. For this class of games, the direct application of classical approaches to the determination of optimality principles such as Nash equilibrium is not possible. The subject of the current paper is the construction of solution concept similar to Nash equilibrium for this class of differential games and corresponding optimality conditions, in particular, modernized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations.
In order to find an optimal and time consistent cooperative path in multicriteria multistage game the minimal sum of relative deviations rule is introduced. Using this rule one can construct a vector-valued characteristic function that is weakly superadditive. The sustainability of the cooperative agreement is ensured by using an imputation distribution procedure (IDP) based approach. We formulate the conditions an IDP should satisfy to guarantee that the core is strongly time consistent (STC). Namely, if the imputation distribution procedure for the Shapley value satisfies the efficiency condition, the strict balance condition and the strong irrational-behavior-proof condition, given that the Shapley value belongs to the core of each subgame along the cooperative path, it can be used as a “supporting imputation” which guarantees that the whole core is STC. We discuss three payment schedules and check whether they can be used as supporting imputation distribution procedures for the considered multicriteria game
The problems of analysis and prediction in social networks are interpreted for the domain of marketing (other applications are also possible). Algorithms of determination of the strong subgroups and satellites for a network are implemented using the programming language R and tested on model examples. An original algorithm of calculation of the final opinions is proposed, implemented in R and also tested on the model examples. The main idea is that all control efforts in marketing (and other problem domains) should be directed only to the members of strong subgroups because they and only they determine the final opinions of all members of the network. Based on this idea, two problems of the opinions control on networks are studied. First, a static game in normal form where the players maximize the final opinions of all members of a target audience by means of the marketing impact to the initial opinions of some members of the strong subgroups. Second, a dynamic (difference) game in normal form where the players solve the problem of maximization of the sum of opinions of the members of a target audience by means of the closed-loop strategies of impact to the current opinions of the members of strong subgroups. In both cases we received the analytical solutions and conducted their comparative analysis. More complicated versions of the models are studied numerically on the base of the method of qualitatively representative scenarios in computer simulation.
In this paper, we consider the following problem - what affects the Nash equilibrium amount of investment in knowledge when some agents of the complete graph enter another full one. The solution of this problem will allow us to understand exactly how game agents will behave when deciding whether to enter the other net, what conditions and externalities affect it and how the level of future equilibrium amount of investments in knowledge an be predicted.
The subject of this paper is a linear quadratic case of a differential game model with continuous updating. This class of differential games is essentially new, there it is assumed that at each time instant, players have or use information about the game structure defined on a closed time interval with a fixed duration. As time goes on, information about the game structure updates. Under the information about the game structure we understand information about motion equations and payoff functions of players. A linear quadratic case for this class of games is particularly important for practical problems arising in the engineering of human-machine interaction. The notion of Nash equilibrium as an optimality principle is defined and the explicit form of Nash equilibrium for the linear quadratic case is presented. Also, the case of dynamic updating for the linear quadratic differential game is studied and uniform convergence of Nash equilibrium strategies and corresponding trajectory for a case of continuous updating and dynamic updating is demonstrated.