190121, Saint Petersburg,
Soyuza Pechatnikov str., 16
В центре внимания данной монографии находятся дестабилизационные процессы, протекающие в модернизирующихся социально-политических системах. Настоящая работа представляет собой попытку учесть, насколько это возможно, влияние демографических, культурных, политических и экономических факторов на дестабилизацию такого рода систем. Монография состоит из трех частей. В первой части рассматриваются теоретические аспекты модернизации стран мир-системной периферии и полупериферии, а также связь модернизационных процессов с дестабилизационными. Во второй части представлены результаты количественного анализа и моделирования социально-политической динамики модернизирующихся систем. Наконец, в третьей части анализируется социально-политическая динамика отдельных стран и регионов. Монография будет интересна не только специалистам, но и всем, кто интересуется дестабилизационными процессами и революциями, их причинами, факторами и механизмами.
The second decade of the twenty-first century is characterised by Russia’s active involvement in Middle Eastern issues. Unexpectedly, Russia decided to return to the Middle East, and Damascus appeared to be the gate to the region. Russian policy in the Middle East ceased to be ideological following the collapse of the Soviet Union, and no longer followed a messianic narrative. The State has become more pragmatic, neither “pro-Arab” nor “pro-Israel” and, in principle, serves its own interests without adhering to a specific camp. Russia has repeatedly changed its vision and respective narrative of the events taking place in the Arab world since the onset of anti-government protests in the region in 2011. In fact, Russian policy in the Middle East has taken a u-turn during the past 8 years: from near total disinterest to direct military intervention.
This study will examine the second Sakhalin and Kuril Islands expedition of lieutenant Khvosotv and ensign Davidov in 1807. The plan of the expedition to Sakhalin was originally built by Rezanov. He genuinely believed that it would help to establish trade between Russia and Japan. On the August 8th of the 1806 he issued an order that prescribed two officers to conduct the expedition to Sakhalin. However, on the 24th of September, he cancelled the expedition. Despite that fact Khvostov decided to conduct the expedition to Sakhalin. Moreover, the following 1807 year Khvostov, this time together with Davidov, carried out the plan of expedition to Sakhalin and Kuril island for the second time. This research is based on the Davidov’s journal “The Voyage of an American Company Tender “Avos” in 1807, under Ensign Davidov”, in which he gives a detailed description of the expedition. He makes interesting notes on the state of the Japanese settlements, compares them to the Russian ones, and describes the search of the first Russian settlements, which was founded by Zvezdochotov on Kuril Islands.
Roland Barthes’ works on cinema remain insufficiently understood. The aim of the present article is to reconstruct his theory of cinema, focusing on semiotic issues and tracing its development in the general evolution of his thoughts from so called pre-structuralist to the structuralist period. I set to analyze well-known articles from the book “Mythologies” (1957), as weak as some little-known ones that have not been translated in Russian, such as the voice-over for the film “Sport and Men”, a review of Mario Ruspoli’s film “The Strangers of the Earth”, an answer about James Bond et al. The assumption is that in the first period the analysis of films consisted mainly of debunking the myths of mass culture, which did not imply the creation of an integral theory of cinema. At the same time, the mythology model became the starting point for his “semiology of the film image”. Faced with a number of difficulties in applying the linguistic methodology to the analysis of films, he left the further development of this project and did not create a structuralist cinema theory. In the early 1960s, he returned to the mythological issues in cinema, its sociology and politics, which can be seen, for example, in his collaboration with Canadian documentary filmmakers.
The article presents biographies of two prominent authors of kokkeibon (“funny books”) genre, namely, Jippensha Ikku and Shikitei Sanba. The famous writers of their epoch, they are notable for their unusual fates and eccentric behavior, which was depicted in their personal memoirs as well as in the works of their contemporaries. Their well-known colleague, Kyokutei Bakin, in his work “Modern Fiction: A Classification of Edo Authors” gave one of the most detailed characteristics of their lives and literary careers. In his review gesakusha writers are represented in all the varieties of their appearances — as successful authors of fiction and poetry, talented storytellers, artists, calligraphists and even businessmen. Jippensha Ikku, the author of one of the biggest gesaku bestsellers, “Shank’s Mare”, started as a bureaucrat in Osaka, and then soon he began to write fiction, alongside with making prints, calligraphy and storytelling. Shikitei Sanba was involved in bookselling business for quite a long time, and then his own literary career started. At the same time he opened a pharmacy, which turned out to be very successful. Therefore, both Jippensha Ikku and Shikitei Sanba embodied a typical image of a gesakusha writer, being active in different spheres and creating a special type of behavior. This mindset can as well be found in their literary works, made of various humorous, theatrical and poetic elements.
The article analyzes the issues of the policy regarding intangible cultural heritage, which is carried out in modern Vietnam. The selection of objects that are recognized as cultural heritage at the national level, as well as being promoted to the List of UNESCO World Heritage Masterpieces, is associated with the specifics of constructing the image of national culture. Despite the obvious positive aspects of the work of protecting national traditions, the theme of culture in Vietnam has the ideological significance, and it affects the authenticity of preserved or restored cultural phenomena. The national myth, which is constructed through cultural heritage policies, comes down to the ideas about the antiquity of the Vietnamese nation and its descent from the Hung Kings, and about the antiquity and continuity of the Vietnamese cultural tradition, which dates back directly to the era of the Hung Kings and carries the features of national identity formed at that time. Such a vision of history and culture is not correct, since the Vietnamese culture developed under the influence of Chinese, and Vietnamese ethnogenetic myths in the form that has survived, bear the imprint of Chinese influence. A special place in the construction of the image of national culture is given to song lore. We believe that actions aimed at enhancing the status of musical folklore have the goal of restoring the traditions of performing folk songs and attracting the interest of youth in this form of activity. We think that the availability of folk songs, the performance of which does not require special skills and special equipment, their potential to turn into mass art makes the promotion of song lore a priority for Vietnamese. Rich and diverse musical folklore is becoming the cornerstone in shaping the image of national culture.
In 1859 Governor General of East Siberia, count Muravyov-Amurskiy (1809 - 1881) arrived in Edo (now Tokyo) as a head of squadron of warships to negotiate with the representatives of military government (bakufu). He sought acceptance by Japanese authority that Sakhalin is Russian territory to draw a border along La Perouse strait. Muravyov-Amurskiy tried to achieve his aim while not resorting to the threat of military force. Russian arguments were not accepted by Japanese diplomats. It was not until 1875 some 16 years later when by Saint-Petersburg treaty Sakhalin fully became part of Russian Empire. Famous japanese historian Akidzuki Tosiaki, while not fully showing Muravyov-Amurskiy statements, is trying to show russian policy in Far East in a misrepresented manner.
Matsudaira Sadanobu (1758-1829) was an actual head of Japanese government in 1787-1793 when relations with Russia had become one of the key questions for Japanese authorities. His success in the negotiations with Russian envoy Adam Laxman made him one of the most influential experts in external affairs even after his resignation. Through his autographic documents and diaries we managed to trace his attidude towards Russia and the idea of trade relations with it under the influence of several events: the Ainu uprising at Kunashir and northeastern Hokkaido in 1789, the visits of Adam Laxman and Nikolai Rezanov embassies in 1792-1793 and 1804-1805, and the assaults on Japanese settlements at Sakhalin and Iturup by Russian sailors in 1806-1807. By examining some common trends in Japan’s foreign policy in the first years of Sadanobu’s rule such as the reduction of trade with Dutch and Chinese merchants and the revision of Korean embassies to Japan, we have seen that Sadanobu’s early negative attitude towards Russia fits together with it. However, the negotiations with Russian envoy Adam Laxman pushed Sadanobu to reconsider the significance of relations with Russia and to pay more attention to the safety of northern boundaries of Japan. Sadanobu’s resignation in 1793 didn’t mean he was sidelined from the state affairs. His opinion was still taken into consideration by the central government as it was after the assaults on Japanese settlements at Sakhalin and Iturup by Russian sailors in 1806-1807. It appears that the capture of Russian captain Vasilii Golovnin in 1811 by Japanese officials were based on Sadanobu’s earlier offer to show off Japan’s martial prowess. Sadanobu’s recognition of Russia as a “neighboring country” signed the change in Japan’s awakening about the reshaped world order in the North Pacific.
The problem of the classification of numerous characters in Jippensha Ikku’s Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige, one of the prominent works of kokkeibon (“funny books”), a genre of entertaining literature gesaku, is raised in the article. Typical features of the characters, whose comical interaction is the main motive of the narration, altogether with their primary functions are the objects of the research. The system of the characters is perceived here as one of the most significant factors of the literary work’s popularity, taking into consideration the fact that Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige was one of the first gesaku bestsellers of such scale. All the characters are divided into three groups, namely, the protagonists, the “wandering” characters, and the “provincial” characters, among which smaller categories are pointed out. The protagonists are typical edokko, the citizens of the capital, who despise provincial traditions and are concentrated on sensuous pleasures. A narration developed around the journey of two male characters is a typical literary device for the traditional Japanese travel literature, however, compared to his literary predecessors, Ikku shows some new tendencies as well. The comical interaction of the main characters varies and takes place mainly in the form of “situational comedy”, or kyōgen. The “wandering” characters are presented by such categories as transportation sphere’s characters, swindlers, travelers, religious characters, warriors. Each category has its own features and functions, for instance, swindlers stimulate the narration’s flow as well as cause comical situations, whereas religious characters smooth out the conflicts between the protagonists and other characters. The same is also relevant for the “provincial” characters, who are represented by the staff of post station inns, traders, owners of tea houses, and provincial residents. Girls from the inns create the special atmosphere of Hizakurige and introduce new locations into the narration, while traders present the famous products of various provinces. The main points of analysis are illustrated with the fragments of the original text, translated by the author of the article.
The article traces how the image of the Ainu formed by Japanese intellectuals in 18th and early 19th centuries influenced the formation of Japan’s policy towards this ethnic minority in the Meiji period (1868-1912).
This paper focuses on the theory and practice of jihād in the Mamlūk Sultanate, especially
during the Circassian period (1382-1517). Some ideas of Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1328), Ibn Khaldūn
(d. 1406), Ibn Kathīr (d. 1373), Ibn al-Naḥḥās (d. 1411), as well as scholars of the pre-
Mamlūk epoch are taken in consideration. The authors explore the issue of understanding
jihād as the responsibility of the community (farḍ al-kifāya) and/or personal duty (farḍ al-
ʿayn) and the role of jihād ideology in the inner- and international Mamlūk politics.
This paper discusses Russian and Iranian economic activity and interests in Syria and focuses on two macroblocks. First of all, it seems to us important to highlight the level of trade and economic cooperation between Russia and Syria, on the one hand, and Iran and Syria, on the other. If for Iran’s economic relations with Syria, it should be noted that although the country has long been one of the top priority targets for Iranian trade and the trade interactions between the two sides were on the rise before 2011, the Syrian Crisis caused bilateral trade to fall drastically. However, Russian economic interests in Syria do not look so obvious and convincing. If we talk about the Russian economic presence in Syria after the Arab spring, it would be more correct to consider the interests of individual Russian businessmen and representatives of the economic elite in specific projects in Syria. Also, this work will be devoted to the difficulties faced by Moscow and Tehran in the implementation of their economic and investment projects in Syria and prospects of cooperation and competition between Russia and Iran. Given the close partnership between Iran and Russia in supporting Bashar al-Assad government, this paper also takes a look on the prospects of economic cooperation or rivalry between Tehran and Moscow in Syria and shows that no mechanism has yet devised by the two parties to manage their competition and promote cooperation in Syria’s economic sphere. Of note, this paper deals exclusively with Iran and Russia’s non-military economic activities in Syria and does not cover issues like arms exports or military aids of the two countries to the Syrian government.
This paper discusses Russian and Iranian economic activity and interests in Syria and focuses on two macroblocks. First of all it seems to us important to highlight the level of trade and economic cooperation between Russia and Syria, on the one hand, and Iran and Syria, on the other. If for Iran’s economic relations with Syria, it should be noted that although the country has long been one of the top priority targets for Iranian trade and the trade interactions between the two sides were on the rise before 2011, the Syrian Crisis caused bilateral trade to fall drastically. However, Russian economic interests in Syria do not look so obvious and convincing. If we talk about the Russian economic presence in Syria after the Arab spring, it would be more correct to consider the interests of individual Russian businessmen and representatives of the economic elite in specific projects in Syria. Also, this work will be devoted to the difficulties faced by Moscow and Tehran in the implementation of their economic and investment projects in Syria and prospects of cooperation and competition between Russia and Iran. Given the close partnership between Iran and Russia in supporting Bashar al-Assad government, this paper also takes a look on the prospects of economic cooperation or rivalry between Tehran and Moscow in Syria and shows that no mechanism has yet devised by the two parties to manage their competition and promote cooperation in Syria’s economic sphere. Of note, this paper deals exclusively with Iran and Russia’s non-military economic activities in Syria and does not cover issues like arms exports or military aids of the two countries to the Syrian government.
The deeds and exploits of St. Lalibäla who was the most famous king of the Ethiopian Zagwe dynasty are still awaiting to be published in full. To the modern researchers this important medieval text is available only in excerpts published by J. Perruchon in the 19th century. The author argues that Lalibäla’s Deeds is far from being an Ethiopian folklore. They comprise valuable authentic data, e.g. the persecution of Lalibäla at the royal court, his escape into the desert, his marriage, his subsequent becoming a king, the organization of his army, taxation policies and history of construction of the famous monolithic churches in the centre of Lasta. The author also argues that the title wäldä nägaśi, which is mentioned in his Deeds as well as its parallel wld/ngšy-n found in Middle Sabaean inscriptions is a sufficient evidence in favour of the military and political continuity between the Aksumite and Zagwe epochs. The Lalibäla’s Deeds comprise many minute details about the everyday life, which suggests that the Christians of Ethiopia had a centuries long oral tradition of preserving and transmitting historical information.
The present article is aimed at reviewing the archival materials of the prominent Russian specialist in Caucasian studies Evgeniy Mikhailovich Shilling (1892 - 1953) that are currently stored in the scientific and historical archive of the State Museum of the History of Religion (hereinafter referred to as GMIR).
The present article discusses the global terrorism narratives exemplified by the media strategies of the Islamic State (IS).1 The authors conclude that the ‘soft power’ of the IS was based on three components: culture, political ideology, and foreign policy. The sources of the ‘soft power’ were the elements and images that allowed the IS to gain control over the consumer. Throughout its existence, the IS had been able to promote itself as a popular and attractive ‘global brand’, skillfully instrumentalizing information and foreign policy strategies. The wide coverage of content distributed via the Internet exponentially increased the audience that terrorists might be interested in. Such organizations could distribute content over the Internet not subject to external control. The promotion of extremist rhetoric through a growing number of Internet platforms encouraged acts of violence, which was also a general trend. Terrorist propaganda in cyberspace addressed a variety of goals and audiences. It adapted, in particular, to reach potential or actual supporters of extremists or to share a common extremist ideology. The Internet was used not only as a means for disseminating extremist publications, but also to develop relationships with potential supporters.