The 68th chapter of the Ethiopian dynastic treatise Kəbrä nägäśt ‘the Nobility of the Kings’ is of considerable interest due to the occurrence of the term mädḫänit interpreted either as ‘Savior’ (in the feminine!) or as ‘Salvation’. The contents of that chapter is focused on a specific ‘essence of Salvation’ (‘ənqwä baḥrəy, literally ‘mother-of-pearl’) created ‘in the abdomen of Adam’ and transmitted from generation to generation. It should be noted that in medieval Ethiopian Christian theology the term baḥrəy ‘pearl’ denoted the Second Hypostasis represented in the unity of His. A parallel to such a concept of ‘Salvation’ transfer was found in Islamic tradition, viz. in legends about the emission of light from ‘Abdallāh, Muḥammad’s father, which gave evidence of his engagement in procreation of a future prophet. Similar ideas appeared to influence the early Shī‘ite doctrine.
The Church of Ethiopia did observe both the Old Testament or the Jewish Sabbath and its Christian counterpart. This practice became one of the distinctive features of the Ethiopian Christianity. In various periods of its history the problem of veneration of the Jewish Sabbath provoked a lasting controversy among the country’s clergy. It was under the reign of the King Zär’a Ya‘ǝqob, in the mid-15th century AD, that the observance of both Sabbaths became the officially accepted by the Ethiopian Church and the State. However, some evidences of this custom can be traced for many centuries before. Following the confession of faith of the King Claudius (1540–1559), the priority was given to the celebration of Sunday. The author of the article was fortunate to discover several cases of the preferential veneration of Sunday during a military campaign of AD 1781, described in the chronicle of the King Täklä Giyorgis I.
The article analyzes the specific features as well as historical and cultural significance of the ritual narratives of the Muong people (one of the Northern Vietnam's ethnic minorities) in both global and local contexts, traces the changing perception of these narratives in the DRV-SRV and also considers some problems related to heritagisation process. The more detailed study is focused on the body of narratives united in the mythoepic cycle The Birth of the Earth and Water.
Xinjiang (XUAR – Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region since 1955) has become an integral part of the PRC since the moment of its establishment on October 1, 1949. The riots and different forms of protests there by followers of separatist ideas have also become an integral part of life in the region. With the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) – a radical Uyghur organisation originating in China that has spread its influence all over the Middle East – Uyghur terrorism has become an international problem. In March, 2017 a new video was released by the Uyghur ethnic minority members of the Islamic State who vowed “to return home and shed blood like rivers”. An Australian National University expert on Xinjiang, Dr. Michael Clarke, marked this as the first direct threat against China by ISIL Uyghurs (Clarke 2017). Chinese scholars agree that the influence of terrorism on the territory of the PRC is constantly growing (Gu 2014).
What are the motives and methods of Uyghur terrorists? What dynamics of their violent acts may we consider in the PRC and abroad? What legal and terrorist organisations have Chinese Uyghurs as members? And what distinguishes legal and so called non-system Uyghur opposition? In this article, we aim to answer these questions, describing the current issues of the problem and their historical background, presenting views from both inside and outside China.
In the article a bilingual note in Arabic and Ottoman Turkish to the unique Arabic Christian manuscript from the collection of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts in St. Petersburg (B 1234) is examined. This copy contains a treatise on meteorology erroneously ascribed to the deacon from Antioch ‘Abdallāh b. al-Faḍl (11th century AD). It is demonstrated that the above-mentioned bilingual note, undoubtedly composed by a Muslim in AD 1823, represents a real negative review on that work, which by the early 19th century AD became completely outdated. The article provides a philological analysis of the Arabic and Ottoman Turkish texts of the note.
The present article deals with a remarkable example of Ethiopian grammar and lexicographic treatise (Säwasəw), preserved in the Manuscript Department of the National Library of Russia in St. Petesrburg. The tradition of composing compilations of that kind goes back in Ethiopia to the period of foundation of the Gondarine Kingdom in the 17th century AD, which was noted with general flourishing of culture in the region. In all probability, that genre was borrowed from the Coptic Arabic tradition. Initially those treatises were created and used as glossaries for Biblical and liturgical texts. Later they began to be applied for education purposes as textbooks in monastic and church traditional schools. Such manuscript handbooks included lists of Ge’ez words with parallel Amharic translations and often grammatical forms of verbs. The grammar treatise in question is distinguished not only with a series of specific features, proper both to its contents and structure, but also with its colophon, that shed light on the history of creation of the manuscript and its further destiny. It was compiled outside Ethiopia, in the bosom of the Coptic Church. This circumstance explains the presence of some peculiarities in it in comparison with the most common examples of those lists. Glosses in Ge‘ez are translated not only in Amharic, but in Arabic too. The manuscript was intended for Peter VII, the Coptic Alexandrian Patriarch in AD 1809–1852, who was initially prepared to become the Metropolitan of the Ethiopian Church. Later in Ethiopia, which was passing through the sorrowful period of political disintegration, there was a need in a new head of the Church, who should be ordained and sent to that country by Peter VII
This article is devoted to the study of the Muong song lore. The Muong are a minority group in Vietnam, and the Muong language is very closely related to Vietnamese. The purpose of this article is to study the song lore of the Muong (folk song genres, folk meters, images and symbols) and compare it to that of the Vietnamese. Muong folk songs have much in common with Vietnamese. The structure of Muong and Viet call-and-response songs seems quite similar. Muong song lore exists in two languages — Muong and Vietnamese, and some songs are common for both the Viets and the Muong. However, Muong song poetry meters are fairly free form. The number of syllables in a line is not regulated, but there is often a rhyme, for which the position in a row may vary. Unlike l ụ c bát poetry, in Muong folk songs internal rhyme can link the last syllable of the fi rst line and the second, third, fourth, fi fth, sixth, seventh and subsequent syllables of the second line. The position of a rhyme can change in a song, there may be no rhyme at all, or it can be absent at the beginning of the song and then appear in the middle. In general, Vietnamese folk poetry is replete with me taphors of Chinese origin. There are quotations from Chinese classical books in folk songs. Muong folk songs avoided the infl uence of the elitist Vietnamese culture. They refl ect local beliefs that are uncharacteristic of the Viet. But the music of the Muong folk songs is quite similar to Vietnamese traditional music. Muong song lore is an interesting material to study processes of cultural divergence and convergence
The article examines the role of the Panchen Lama institution in the inner policy of the Qing Empire (1644-1912). Manchu rulers expressed equal respect to the authority of both Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama throughout the period of their reign. The reason for that was considerable religious and even political influence of the Lamas on the vast territories, where Tibetan Buddhism was spread. Stable affirmative relationship with Buddhist hierarchs allowed the Qing court to rely on them when conducting it's policies in this significant geocultural area.
The article contains a description of the methods of the positive discrimination used by the Government of PRC in education towards the national minorities and an analysis of the problems that occur when implementing these methods. The author takes the Tibetan ethnic minorities’ educational situation as the main example, because the lowest educational rates in PRC are shown in the Tibetan Autonomous Region. The author concludes that the positive discrimination shouldn’t be regarded as the main instrument of the effacement of social inequalities, although it shouldn’t be refused yet.
This article examines an Arabic version of the Tale on Macarius the Roman, the well-known apocryphal writing which belongs, according to its contents, not only to hagiographic literature, but also to the genre of itineraries. It was identified for the first time in the manuscript collection of lives of saints, kept in the Library of the Academia Romana in Bucharest under the shelf-mark B.A.R. Mss orientale 365 and dated from the late 18th century AD. A possibility of existence of one more copy of that work in the Monastery of Balamand is pointed out, but the details of its description given in the relevant catalogue are not enough for a well-founded conclusion on that matter. The article makes a comparison of the Arabic version with the Greek original and the Slavonic version and demonstrated some specific features of the translation from Greek into Arabic, in particular frequent transitions from literal rendering to free retelling of the contents. An assumption is made that the scene of the appearance of Christ in glory to the saint, which occupies the central place in the text, was composed under the influence of the tendency towards exaggerations, proper to the Orient, which was revealed by Boris A. Turayev in Coptic and Ethiopian literatures. In its final part the article gives a brief survey of spelling peculiarities, typical of Middle Arabic (in the first instance, Christian Arabic) texts. They are connected with some changes both in phonology, first of all with the disappearance of interdental consonants, and in morphology (the loss of case endings).
In this book all the South Arabian inscriptions discovered in the region of Nihm (North-Eastern Yemen) in the 60-70-ies of the 20th century by the Russian Arabist Piotr Gryaznevich and his French colleague Christian Julien Robin are edited with their translation into French and commentary. Besides that, special chapetrs were composed on the exploration of Nihm, the palaeography of those inscriptions dated from the 7th century BC to the 6th century AD, their linguistical peculiarities, the onomasticon attested in them and the religious beliefs of tehir authors are included in the volume. The photographs of the inscriptions are published in a separate volume.
In the present article the textual distortion of the Biblical verse Lev. 18.8 cited in the Ethiopian dynastic treatise Kǝbrä nägäśt is considered as an intentional allusion to the conflict between the king of Ethiopia ‘Amdä Ṣǝyon I (1314–1344) and the Däbrä Libanos monastic congregation. The second half of that verse was changed in such a way that the marriage to a wife of the father became equal with the mother–son incest. At the same time it is generally known that some clergymen accused that king, who married a concubine of his father for political reasons, of cohabiting his mother. That conflict came into being in the 27th year of the reign of ‘Amdä Ṣǝyon I and on the basis of the above-mentioned allusion to it in the text of the Kǝbrä nägäśt the treatise should be dated rather precisely from the beginning of the 40ies of the 14th century AD.
On March 24, 2015, an outstanding orientalist, archaeologist, historian, honored worker of sci- 5 ence of Tajikistan Alexander Markovich Belenitskiǐ would have attained the age of 111 years. 6 The present article introduces the life history of the scientist and his general achievements il- 7 lustrated with quotes from the memorials of people who knew him personally. The article is 8 based on the materials of the Scientific Conference ‘Central Asia from the Achaemenids to the Timurids: Archaeology, History, Ethnology, Culture’ devoted to the 100th 9 anniversary 10 from the date of birth of Alexander Markovich.