Credit risk management is of considerable importance for banks, and the most common credit risk models are based on combining client’s private information with credit terms. However, if credit terms are an integral part of initial calculations, then results have to be recalculated for every alteration of credit terms. Thus, banks obtain ‘one-shot’ results from decision support systems that are built with application of these models. In the given paper a credit risk model is proposed. This model is based on a separate analysis of client’s private information and credit terms in order to construct a contour subspace for credit terms that correspond to an equal credit risk value. Application of a proposed model will add advanced options for decision support systems in loan granting, i.e. to visualize a contour subspace of credit terms for a client according to an individual creditworthiness estimation, provide options to choose credit terms from this contour subspace, and manage credit terms on-line according to the dynamics in a creditworthiness estimation.
Following a normative approach that suggests international norms and standards for elections apply universally, regardless of regime type or cultural context, this book examines the challenges to electoral integrity, the actors involved, and the consequences of electoral malpractice and poor electoral integrity that vary by regime type. It bridges the literature on electoral integrity with that of political regime types.
Looking specifically at questions of innovation and learning, corruption and organized crime, political efficacy and turnout, the threat of electoral violence and protest, and finally, the possibility of regime change, it seeks to expand the scholarly understanding of electoral integrity and diverse regimes by exploring the diversity of challenges to electoral integrity, the diversity of actors that are involved and the diversity of consequences that can result.
This text will be of key interest to scholars, students and practitioners of electoral studies, and more broadly of relevance to comparative politics, international development, political behaviour and democracy, democratization, and autocracy.
In this paper we estimate the effects of indicators of “hard” and “soft” infrastructure on export performance in Russian regions. Empirical results show that both hard and soft infrastructure measures matter for export survival of export flows from non-resource-oriented Russian regions. Empirical estimates account for size and time effects for export flows and find that the positive effects of hard and soft infrastructure are falling over time and are more important for larger exporters. This may serve as an evidence of a learning curve for exporters when the latter become more efficient with time in treating with regional-level hard and soft infrastructure resources
Relations between the EU and Russia have been traditionally and predominantly studied from a one-sided power perspective, in which interests and capabilities are taken for granted.
This book presents a new approach to EU-Russia relations by focusing on the role of images and perceptions, which can be major obstacles to the enhancement of relations between both actors. By looking at how these images feature on both sides (EU and Russia), on different levels (bilateral, regional, multilateral) and in different policy fields (energy, minorities, regional integration, multilateral institutions), the book seeks to reintroduce a degree of sophistication into EU-Russia studies and provide a more complete overview of different dimensions of EU-Russia relations than any book has done to date. Taking social constructivist and transnational approaches, interests and power are not seen as objectively given, but as socially mediated and imbued by identities.
This text will be of key interest to scholars, students and practitioners of European Foreign Policy, Eastern Partnership, Russian Foreign Policy and more broadly to European and EU Politics/Studies, Russia studies, and International Relations.
This article studies the history of the region of Galicia as part of Ukraine, the idea of Ukrainian national space, and ways in which various national projects were competing for this region. Maps were representative of these ideas, presenting the continuous Ukrainian territory from the Sjan to the Don Rivers, became crucial parts of these descriptions and most actively entered the popular Ukrainian discourse.
Both Russian speakers and language planners underestimate the linguistic diversity of the city. Moscow is perceived and promoted as a monolingual megalopolis. The multilingualism is considered as a quality of ethnic regions forming a periphery of Russia while its capital keeps a monolingual and stable character.
Availability of alternative information is often said to induce social discontent and to give rise to protest forms of political participation. But does this relation really exist, and is it universal? In contrast to previous studies, where generalized Internet use is most often a proxy for online information consumption and general political participation is a proxy for protest participation, we render a test of relationship specifically between online news consumption and protest participation. We explore self-reported cross-sectional data for 48 nations. The analysis provides empirical evidence that the likelihood of individual protest participation is positively associated with online news consumption. The study also shows that the magnitude of the effect varies depending on a political context: surprisingly, despite total control offline as well as online media, autocratic countries demonstrated effects of online news higher than in hybrid regimes where civilians usually have the access to Internet media that provide information which is alternative to the pro-government news agenda.
This study explores the recovery in the Market Value Added (MVA) of European companies after the recent global economic crisis in 2008–2009. It introduces empirical evidence that intangible-intensive strategy in human and relational capital reinforces speed of the after-crisis correction for companies. Based on a panel dataset of more than 1600 listed corporations this research aims to discover drivers of Market Value Added trends in 2011–2013. The established results contribute to the understanding of the advantages that companies can exploit for the recovery after systematic shocks of markets. Our study demonstrates that intangible-intensive strategy not always enabled faster recovery speed. Meanwhile, it provided year-to-year acceleration of MVA growth after crisis.
This review essay focuses on the new monograph by S. A. Smith Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis, 1890 to 1928 (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017). As a leading expert in the social history of the Russian Revolution of 1917, Smith provides a comprehensive political, social, and cultural narrative of one of the central events in the global history of the twentieth century. Directed at a general readership, the book offers an excellent overview of existing Russian and Western scholarship, outlines the main course of events, introduces most important actors, and contains thought-provoking conclusions about the revolution. As seen from the title, Smith takes a longish view on the political rupture and includes a comprehensive analysis of social and political life of the Russian Empire, a brief overview of the First Russian Revolution (1905–1907) and the economic and political crisis of the First World War (1914–1918) before discussing the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Russian Civil War, and the period of the New Economic Policy (NEP). The book’s conclusion is a comprehensive essay attempting to comprehend the revolution and its consequences as a whole. As a nuanced social, political, and cultural history, Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis, 1890 to 1928 outlines the Revolution of 1917 as a tectonic shift which cannot be reduced to a simple change of the elites in the Russian imperial formation. Smith’s brilliant work will be invaluable for the students of history, both in Russia and abroad, and all those who are interested in global history in general and the Russian Revolution in particular.
In the past decade, a lot of researchers have focused on either management or measurement of intellectual capital components on macro (government), meso (local communities and industries) and micro (single organization itself) level. While it’s been a current issue for commercial organizations, higher education institutions, and private schools, a number of research projects about the implementation of intellectual capital concept (both parts) is scarce. Russian secondary education system is facing a necessity to become more transparent and client‐oriented, the existing reporting and management systems are not capable of dealing with this range of problems. Our research goal is to investigate the current status quo of intellectual capital in secondary schools (Do we have an established language for Intellectual Capital in educational institutions in St Petersburg Russia?). The level of perception and representation of IC metrics is analyzed by semantic analysis (what are the main IC components that value in a strategic planning of schools) and preliminary insights of the research are reported.
The structure of the applied theory of the logistics systems design and planning continues to evolve in the circumstances of supply chain integration. The synchronization of material, service, information, and intellectual flows offers new opportunities for cross-disciplinary analysis. The article considers the development of conceptual framework, as well tactical and operational levels (e.g. existing terms and definitions, economic indicators, methods and models) that are applied in the research on the creation of value nets in terms of their flexibility, speed and reliability.
The much-maligned lines Eur. H.F. 1410–17 are treated in this article as a psychologically veritable conclusion – should we not wish to follow N. Wecklein and bluntly round off at 1404 – of the Amphitryon–Heracles–Theseus scene in which they are most at home where the tradition has them, at the very end, and not, as G. Bond would attempt to prove, immediately after 1253. Along the way to 1417 certain minor critical comments are offered.