In the second quarter of the 20th-century Russian émigré philosopher Georgii Fedotov coined the description of a personality type termed the “Russian European”. He distinguished the creative type of “Russian Europeans” loyal to both Russian and European cultural values from two other negative types: the “autocratic-despot” and “anti-state-nihilist”. In this chapter I look at how this concept was further theorised in works of Vladimir Kantor and Alexei Kara-Murza and relate it to an anti-war message developed in a 2002 Russian film The Cuckoo.
Interpreting The Cuckoo this chapter, in particular, shows how various scenes from the movie overlap with ideas of “dialogism” and help to deconstruct what Mikhail Bakhtin called an “authoritative discourse”. I also explore how concepts like “life knowledge” and “all-unity” (by Semyon Frank) enable us to speak up against war and political violence today.
Credit risk management is of considerable importance for banks, and the most common credit risk models are based on combining client’s private information with credit terms. However, if credit terms are an integral part of initial calculations, then results have to be recalculated for every alteration of credit terms. Thus, banks obtain ‘one-shot’ results from decision support systems that are built with application of these models. In the given paper a credit risk model is proposed. This model is based on a separate analysis of client’s private information and credit terms in order to construct a contour subspace for credit terms that correspond to an equal credit risk value. Application of a proposed model will add advanced options for decision support systems in loan granting, i.e. to visualize a contour subspace of credit terms for a client according to an individual creditworthiness estimation, provide options to choose credit terms from this contour subspace, and manage credit terms on-line according to the dynamics in a creditworthiness estimation.
Clausal complements are generally taken to be free from formal licensing conditions such as the Case Filter. In this paper, I discuss the distributional restriction of čto-clause complements of N to restructuring V-N collocations earlier proposed in Knyazev 2016, where it was explained by a formal licensing requirement for čto-clausess. I present the results of an experimental study that used a factorial definition of the restriction adapted from studies of island effects (see Sprouse et al. 2013). The results provide evidence for the restriction and indirectly support the licensing requirement proposed earlier.
This paper studies the quantity p(n,r), that is the minimal number of edges of an n-uniform hypergraph without panchromatic coloring (it means that every edge meets every color) in r colors. If r≤cnlnn then all bounds have a type A1(n,lnn,r)(rr−1)n≤p(n,r)≤A2(n,r,lnr)(rr−1)n, where A1, A2 are some algebraic fractions. The main result is a new lower bound on p(n,r) when r is at least cn; we improve an upper bound on p(n,r) if n=o(r3∕2).
Also we show that p(n,r) has upper and lower bounds depending only on n∕r when the ratio n∕r is small, which cannot be reached by the previous probabilistic machinery.
Finally we construct an explicit example of a hypergraph without panchromatic coloring and with
(rr−1+o(1))n edges for r=o(nlnn).
This article examines the Finnish industrial and trade fairs held in the Soviet Union in the context of Finnish–Soviet trade and scientific–technical cooperation in the 1950s and 1960s. While primarily focused on fairs, it also discusses different activities that accompanied them, such as lectures, visits, and negotiations between Finnish traders and Soviet officials and specialists. This study illustrates how such first-hand contact played an important role in Finnish– Soviet communications. First, they helped Finnish producers showcase their goods and technologies directly to Soviet buyers in various ministries and organizations. Second, these contacts included diverse activities such as face-toface contacts, lectures, and seminars, being a means of technology transfer from Finland to the USSR. Finally, although they were commercial interactions without explicit ideological purposes – like many international exhibitions of the last century – Finnish fairs demonstrated a technological gap between Finland and the USSR.
Paralinguistic phenomena are non-verbal elements in conversation. Paralinguistic studies are usually based on audio or video recordings of spoken communication. In this article, we will show what kind of audible paralinguistic information may be obtained from the ORD speech corpus of everyday Russian containing long-term audio recordings of conversations made in natural circumstances. This linguistic resource provides rich authentic data for studying the diversity of audible paralinguistic phenomena. The frequency of paralinguistic phenomena in everyday conversations has been calculated on the base of the annotated subcorpus of 187,600 tokens. The most frequent paralinguistic phenomena turned out to be: laughter, inhalation noise, cough, e-like and m-like vocalizations, tongue clicking, and the variety of unclassified non-verbal sounds (calls, exclamations, imitations by voice, etc.). The paper reports on distribution of paralinguistic elements, non-verbal interjections and hesitations in speech of different gender and age groups.
The article is written in English.
There is a paradox in the aftermath of the global imperial crisis in the region of Eastern Europe and Eurasia. The Habsburg Empire which had been thought about as the katechon of future world of federalism broke into nation-states with regimes of accommodation and repression of national minorities. The Russian Empire which had been thought about as the future centralized nation-state transformed into a federation with layered forms of autonomy and decentralization. The exploration of this paradox begins with the critique of the image of the Russian Empire as a centralized and centralizing state and exploration of inclusive and differentiated governance and ways in which this political formation was reflected in political discourses of reformist and oppositional movements which in one way or another imagined the post-imperial order. The paper then traces the constitutional debates in the revolutionary contexts of 1905 and 1917 and assesses how these debates reflected local and global discourses of imagining the post-imperial order and how they were incorporated into the constitutions adopted on the territory of the former Russian Empire. The global imperial crisis which brought down the Qing, Russian, Ottoman, German and Habsburg empires stimulated imagination of post-imperial order not only in the named contexts, but also in the British, French and other cases. The circulation and synthesis of ideas fostered by the miscellany of the crumbling empires and the diversity within each of them produced a great variety of imaginations. The non-Soviet constitutional projects of 1917–1921 and the Soviet constitutions of 1918 and 1924 incorporated the experience of the Russian Empire and other imperial and post-imperial formations. The Constitution of the Far Eastern Republic, for instance, borrowed the concept of non-territorial autonomy from the Ukrainian Constitution of 1918, while the ineffectiveness of the formal right to territorial autonomy resembled that in the Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920. The multilateral transfers and borrowings, both from the Russian imperial and other contexts, resulted in the departure of the 1924 Constitution of the Soviet Union from the initial Bolshevik plans. Instead of establishing a non-national class-centered formation, it became a mere preamble to a multinational confederation to be developed by its sovereign participants, which included two federations.
This chapter looks into two paradoxes of the post-Soviet Russian gender order and post-Soviet
Russian masculinities. The first paradox is a large-scale, well documented structural
contradiction which has persisted throughout the entire post-Soviet period of Russian history:
despite the fact that military service remains a constitutional duty of male citizens in Russia, only
a minority of men in the draft pool end up serving in the armed forces. The second paradox,
commonly known but underexplored, relates to the symbolic dimensions of gender relations in
Russia. I addressed this issue in my relatively small-scale qualitative research project on
contemporary Russian masculinities: I found that despite harsh criticism of the contemporary
Russian army and personal unwillingness to serve in the military, only a small number of the
research participants expressed consistent antimilitary sentiments and/or considered military
service as unnecessary and pointless. My research also showed that the military and militarism
remain a crucially important gendered terrain on which Russian masculinities are contested and
achieved. This is evident even in the context of a severe crisis of the national military, and even
for men who have no experience of military service.
This article examines the discourses of water pollution and protection in the Soviet Union in the 1950s-1960s. It explores discursive practices which sprung up related to two paper and pulp plants, one located on the shore of Lake Baikal and another production unit in Svetogorsk on the border with Finland. These two discourses provide deep insight to pro-industry and nature protection claims which characterized Soviet water pollution and protection discourses in the 1950s-1960s. The paper contends that discussions about pulp production near Baikal were influencing the conditions in other, far located regions and stimulated engineering of water treatment facilities. The development of such facilities became a compromise between supporters and defenders of increasing pulp industry production, but in practice did not result in solving the problem of water pollution. In analyzing this issue, I consider discussions around the Baikal pulp plant and first attempts of introducing advanced water treatment in an industrial city of Svetogorsk and beyond, also discussing contacts with the West, in particular with Finland and their effects on Soviet water management.
The purpose of this article is an attempt to apply media review method to consumer behavior problematic situations using examples from the comedy movie "Heartbreakers". The short plot, two marketing cases, and their analysis with lessons are presented. Results suggest that service recovery strategies developed by marketers are not enough to deal with problematic customers.
The book considers how to make the methodology of business ethics more scientific, especially its normative branch. Storchevoy explores the attempts of economic theory to contribute to the scientific normative analysis of economic behavior, particularly the welfare economics of 1910-1950 and methodological discussions of economics and ethics from 1980-2015. He then examines the development of the methodological structure of business ethics in general since the 1980s and the scientific validity of normative business ethics, including stakeholder theory, the separation thesis, integral social contract theory, corporate social responsibility, virtue ethics and other frameworks. He concludes by suggesting an additional step to make business ethics a more systematic discipline by developing a typology of moral issues and dilemmas. Business Ethics as a Science will be a thought-provoking resource for students and practitioners of business ethics and economists alike.
This essay examines the reception of Stendhal's Red and the Black in Pushkin's “Queen of Spades” (1833) and Lermontov's unfinished novel, Princess Ligovskaya (1836), particularly with regard to Stendhal's hero, Julien Sorel–the social aspirant, who is at once passionately driven and cunningly disciplined. It focuses on how the reception of Sorel in these two Russian works is contaminated in different ways with a second figure, the romantic archetype of the “child of the age.” If Sorel can be understood as developing in dialectical opposition to the child of the age, Pushkin's Germann appears to reject and undermine this literary historical development. By contrast, Lermontov's attempt to incorporate aspects of the little Napoleon into his novel proves a failure, so he retreats to a more traditional portrait of the child of the age in A Hero of Our Time. In conclusion, the article argues that Lermontov's failure is a more productive moment in the history of the Russian novel than Pushkin's successful, but utterly destructive reply to Stendhal.
Telecommunication enterprises in Russia have to constantly update their own material and technical base in order to maintain their competitive positions in the market. Uninterrupted performance at the brink of the capacity of modern technologies causes a steady demand for equipment and hardware components that include a great share of innovative parts, and the vast majority of them are not produced in the domestic market. Advanced currency risk management as an integral part of the enterprise risk management system can deliver the best options for purchases policy and free capital allocation in the money market, thus it can significantly improve the overall corporate efficiency in high-tech enterprises.
Despite the increasing number of studies devoted to creative professionals, there are still many topics, which remain understudied. Among these topics there is interconnection of professional labor and cultural institutions of which labor conditions are framed. Furthermore, while much research has been devoted to the UK, other regions or global concerns have gained little attention. This article concerns creative professionals in post-Soviet Russia. It offers an overview of the field of cultural institutions in St. Petersburg in relation with the cultural administration and the professionals working for it. In particular, this study points out to the public sector in the Russian cultural production and new non-state institutions founded by young entrepreneurs and activists, which have constantly to struggle for recognition and support of the city’s administration. Based on fieldwork conducted in St. Petersburg in 2012-2014, the empirical study includes 26 in-depth interviews with cultural managers, employees of art-centers, lofts, creative spaces, museums, theatres. The research items here highlighted are concerned with the peculiarities of the institutional environment arisen in Russia as regards the creative labor in public and non-governmental cultural institutions. It is discussed whether the post-socialism system presents a ‘luckier’ medium for a ‘good’ creative job than that of advanced capitalism.
The western opening of Russia under Peter I and Catherine II, the formation of modern state in the German territorial states and their further development in the era of enlightened absolutism, Russia’s rise to great power and the emergence of the European “pentarchy”, diverse dynastic connections and cultural influences, the revolutionization of Europe by Napoleon and the defense of Napoleonic imperialism – it is a multifarious history in which German-Russian relations and contexts are integrated in the “long 18th century”. This volume illustrates these connections in 35 joint contributions by German and Russian historians. Short factual representations, supplemented by documents and images, shed light on the development of German-Russian interactions. The volume continues the three-part work “Germany-Russia: Stations of Common History, Places of Commemoration”, of which the volume on the 20th century was published earlier, and the next one – on the 19th century – will follow soon.
Following a normative approach that suggests international norms and standards for elections apply universally, regardless of regime type or cultural context, this book examines the challenges to electoral integrity, the actors involved, and the consequences of electoral malpractice and poor electoral integrity that vary by regime type. It bridges the literature on electoral integrity with that of political regime types.
Looking specifically at questions of innovation and learning, corruption and organized crime, political efficacy and turnout, the threat of electoral violence and protest, and finally, the possibility of regime change, it seeks to expand the scholarly understanding of electoral integrity and diverse regimes by exploring the diversity of challenges to electoral integrity, the diversity of actors that are involved and the diversity of consequences that can result.
This text will be of key interest to scholars, students and practitioners of electoral studies, and more broadly of relevance to comparative politics, international development, political behaviour and democracy, democratization, and autocracy.