During the Cold War, official Soviet institutions organized tens of exhibitions of an American figurative artist Rockwell Kent. These exhibitions, undertaken bypassing the official United States, demonstrate that promotion of Kent in the USSR was an exclusively Soviet enterprise. Examining the role of Soviet institutions in Kent’s success, the article sheds new light on the Soviet approach to the representation of American visual art during the Cold War.
Basing on unique findings from American and Russian archives, the article provides a comprehensive analysis of political and aesthetical factors, which predetermined Kent’s incredible popularity in the Soviet Union. Contextualizing the Soviet representation of Kent within relevant Cold War contexts, the article argues that Kent occupied a specific symbolic position in Soviet culture, as Soviet propaganda re-conceptualized the artist’s biography and established the Myth of Rockwell Kent. This myth served for legitimization of Soviet ideology and for anti-American propaganda.
The second part of the paper is devoted to enumeration of r-regular maps on the torus up to all its homeomorphisms (unsensed maps). We describe in detail the periodic orientation reversing homeomorphisms of the torus which turn out to be representable as glide reflections. We show that considering quotients of the torus with respect to these homeomorphisms leads to maps on the Klein bottle, the annulus and the M ̈obius band. Using 3- and 4-regular maps as an example we describe the technique of enumerating quotient maps on surfaces with a boundary. Obtained recurrence relations are used to enumerate unsensed r-regular maps on the torus for various r.
The work that consists of two parts is devoted to the problem of enumerating unrooted r-regular maps on the torus up to all its symmetries. We begin with enumerating near-r- regular rooted maps on the torus, the projective plane and the Klein bottle, as well as some special kinds of maps on the sphere: near-r-regular maps, maps with multiple leaves and maps with multiple root darts. For r = 3 and r = 4 we obtain exact analytical formulas. For larger r we derive recurrence relations. Then we enumerate r-regular maps on the torus up to homeomorphisms that preserve its orientation — so-called sensed maps. Using the concept of a quotient map on an orbifold we reduce this problem to enumeration of certain above-mentioned classes of rooted maps. For r = 3 and r = 4 we obtain closed-form expressions for the numbers of r-regular sensed maps by edges. All these results will be used in the second part of the work to enumerate r-regular maps on the torus up to all homeomorphisms — so-called unsensed maps.
This paper investigates to what extent activity of a social movement on a social networking site is related to participation in offline collective action. Through this research, we seek to contribute to a broader theory of effective communicative structures of social movements. We use the data of roughly 12,000 individuals from 17 online groups representing the branches of the ‘Observers for Fair Elections’ movement in 17 districts of St. Petersburg, Russia, and compare their online properties to real offline participation of movement members in elections in the role of electoral observers. We find that while prediction of individual offline participation with this online data is of limited power, association between district participation rates and online group features is very strong. Large, more inclusive and evenly connected networks, where people are engaged in high-threshold online activities, produce more offline participants; weak individual-level prediction, combined with strong group-level prediction, suggests either the presence of the ‘network effect’ or of third factors – such as prior contentious experience or the effect of leaders.
In the framework of this paper we apply multifractal formalism to the analysis of statistical behaviour of topic models under variation of the number of topics. Fractal analysis of topic models allows to show that self-similar fractal clusters exist in large textual collections. We provide numerical results for 3 topic models (PLSA, ARTM, LDA Gibbs sampling) on 2 datasets, namely, on an English-language dataset and on a Russian-language dataset. We demonstrate that forming of clusters occurs precisely in the transition regions. Linear regions do not lead to changes in fractals, therefore, it is sufficient to find transition regions for the study of textual collections. Accordingly, the problem of the analysing the evolution of topic models can be reduced to the problem of searching transition regions in topic models.
The article is devoted to an intepretation of the role of Russian emigration in the formation and in the functioning of the unofficial cultural communities of Moscow and Leningrad during the 68s-80s. The first emigration and the second one didn't influence essentially the nonconformist communities. Meanwhile the third emigration played the leading role in the history of the underground because it distributed information on the independent culture in USSR, as well as it linked tightly the Soviet intellectuals with their colleagues in Europe and USA.
The main source for my study is a set of notarial deeds produced in Tana by the Venetian notaries Nicolo de Varsis and Benedetto Smeritis. These sources have not been published previously and have never been the subject of intensive study. Researchers have long regarded Venetian notarial acts as one of the most important sources of the economic, social, political, ethnic, and legal history of the Italian trading stations. The documents drawn up by the Italian notaries in the Levant, in the trading stations of the Eastern Mediterranean, and on the Black Sea coast have attracted the attention of the scholars from different fields, being a relevant source for reconstructing the history of the Italian republics, Eastern Europe, and the region at the edge of the Caucasus. Italian notarial documents are quite numerous because the trading stations’ commerce and political relations with the Byzantine Empire, Russian principalities, the Golden Horde, and the states of the East were intensive and this produced plenty of documentary material. Undoubtedly, a large part of the archives of the trading stations perished during the Ottoman conquest. Nevertheless, the republics retained copies of many original documents and books of accounts, which they sent to the metropolis and attached to the reports of officers. According to the legislation of the republic of Venice, notarial deeds passed from one notary to his successor and then came to the archives. Currently, 1194 Venetian deeds are extant, drawn up in Tana by some thirty-four well-known notaries. Later acts, in contrast to earlier, survived, as a rule, not as instrumentae (original papers), but as imbreviaturae (copies left by the notaries).
The paper explores the state of academic dialogue between the Russian and Western scholarly communities studying the European Union (EU)–Russia relations in Justice and Home Affairs (JHA). By analyzing the citation patterns of the academic articles on the EU–Russia cooperation in this area, we arrive at the conclusion that the Russian scholarship mostly does not engage in a transnational academic dialogue with the Western counterparts. In other words, it has turned into a sealed ‘indigenous’ scholarly community. And what is more, it is also disintegrated within itself since the Russian scholars do not refer to the research produced by their compatriots either. To qualitatively substantiate our findings, in the last section of the paper, we review the universe of all articles written on the topic in Russian to distinguish five trends typical of the research published in Russian academic journals. We believe that these features are the result of the lack of engagement with the Western scholarship and simultaneously the cause which prevents the communication between the two scholarly communities. This, in turn, undermines the accumulation of the transnational multifaceted policy-relevant expertise essential for normalizing the relations between Brussels and Moscow in general and in JHA in particular.
The representation of electricity was a significant challenge because Soviet authors were to communicate the complex ‘scientific’ phenomenon to an unprepared audience. In my essay, I will explore how during the 1920s to the 1930s, Soviet authors experimented with the representation of the electricity in order to find an optimal proportion of fantasy and factual data for children’s books. A forthcoming publication within The Pedagogy of Images: Depicting Communism for Children, edited by Marina Balina and Serguei Oushakine.
the article is about the problem of feminism in the political discours (on the basis of interviews of women-politicans of Germany)
In the second quarter of the 20th-century Russian émigré philosopher Georgii Fedotov coined the description of a personality type termed the “Russian European”. He distinguished the creative type of “Russian Europeans” loyal to both Russian and European cultural values from two other negative types: the “autocratic-despot” and “anti-state-nihilist”. In this chapter I look at how this concept was further theorised in works of Vladimir Kantor and Alexei Kara-Murza and relate it to an anti-war message developed in a 2002 Russian film The Cuckoo.
Interpreting The Cuckoo this chapter, in particular, shows how various scenes from the movie overlap with ideas of “dialogism” and help to deconstruct what Mikhail Bakhtin called an “authoritative discourse”. I also explore how concepts like “life knowledge” and “all-unity” (by Semyon Frank) enable us to speak up against war and political violence today.
The student's book is based on the CLIL approach to teaching and teaches case study solving skills via English language learning. Such an approach creates positive environment for students to master new knowledges and skills.
Competence in academic writing among university undergraduates has been a key area of research for over the last thirty years. However, the dominant status of English as the lingua franca of the global academic community has led to substantial changes in the academic language landscape of non-Anglophone countries. In particular, local traditions and practices of L1 academic writing within a university context tend to be undersupported while L2 (English) academic writing experience is treated as a top teaching priority. The present study, carried out with the help of the LIDHUM project team, reports results on the current role of academic writing in L1 vs. L2 in Russia. The questionnaire was developed for first- and third-year undergraduates of a leading national research university to pose such questions as: whether academic writing plays an important role in the university; whether L1 writing is supported; which L1 and L2 written genres students use; how much time students spend on classroom-based vs. home-based writing; whether written tasks require critical thinking competence; whether academic writing is supported; and how writing skills are developed. The paper focuses on L1/L2 similarities and differences as well as on first-year undergraduates’ (i.e., entry-level) writing competence vs. third-year students’ perceptions of writing skills. The study likewise reflects on developmental needs, which are also relevant for the European context.
Online social networks (OSNs) play an increasingly important role in news dissemination and consumption, attracting such traditional media outlets as TV channels with growing online audiences. Online news streams require appropriate instruments for analysis. One of such tools is topic modeling (TM). However, TM has a set of limitations (the problem of topic number choice and the algorithm instability, among others) that must be addressed specifically for the task of sociological online news analysis. In this paper, we propose a full-cycle methodology for such study: from choosing the optimal topic number to the extraction of stable topics and analysis of TM results. We illustrate it with an analysis of online news stream of 164,426 messages formed by twelve national TV channels during a one-year period in a leading Russian OSN. We show that our method can easily reveal associations between news topics and user feedback, including sharing behavior. Additionally, we show how uneven distribution of document quantities and lengths over classes (TV channels) could affect TM results.
This essay examines the quantitative aspects of Greco-Roman science, represented by a group of established disciplines that since the fourth century b.c.e. had been called mathēmata or mathēmatikai epistēmai. Among the mathēmata, which in antiquity normally comprised mathematics, mathematical astronomy, harmonics, mechanics, and optics, the essay also includes geography. Using a data set based on The Encyclopaedia of Ancient Natural Scientists, it considers a community of mathēmatikoi (as they called themselves), or ancient scientists (as they are defined for the purposes of this essay), from a sociological point of view, focusing on the size of the scientific population known to us and its disciplinary, temporal, and geographical distribution. A diachronic comparison of neighboring and partly overlapping communities—ancient scientists and philosophers—allows the pattern of their interrelationship to be traced. An examination of centers of science throughout ancient history reveals that there were five major sites—Athens, Alexandria, Rhodes, Rome, and Byzantium/Constantinople—that appeared, in succession, as leaders. These conclusions serve to reopen the issue of the place of mathēmata and mathēmatikoi in ancient society.
Clausal complements are generally taken to be free from formal licensing conditions such as the Case Filter. In this paper, I discuss the distributional restriction of čto-clause complements of N to restructuring V-N collocations earlier proposed in Knyazev 2016, where it was explained by a formal licensing requirement for čto-clausess. I present the results of an experimental study that used a factorial definition of the restriction adapted from studies of island effects (see Sprouse et al. 2013). The results provide evidence for the restriction and indirectly support the licensing requirement proposed earlier.