This paper investigates to what extent activity of a social movement on a social networking site is related to participation in offline collective action. Through this research, we seek to contribute to a broader theory of effective communicative structures of social movements. We use the data of roughly 12,000 individuals from 17 online groups representing the branches of the ‘Observers for Fair Elections’ movement in 17 districts of St. Petersburg, Russia, and compare their online properties to real offline participation of movement members in elections in the role of electoral observers. We find that while prediction of individual offline participation with this online data is of limited power, association between district participation rates and online group features is very strong. Large, more inclusive and evenly connected networks, where people are engaged in high-threshold online activities, produce more offline participants; weak individual-level prediction, combined with strong group-level prediction, suggests either the presence of the ‘network effect’ or of third factors – such as prior contentious experience or the effect of leaders.
In the second quarter of the 20th-century Russian émigré philosopher Georgii Fedotov coined the description of a personality type termed the “Russian European”. He distinguished the creative type of “Russian Europeans” loyal to both Russian and European cultural values from two other negative types: the “autocratic-despot” and “anti-state-nihilist”. In this chapter I look at how this concept was further theorised in works of Vladimir Kantor and Alexei Kara-Murza and relate it to an anti-war message developed in a 2002 Russian film The Cuckoo.
Interpreting The Cuckoo this chapter, in particular, shows how various scenes from the movie overlap with ideas of “dialogism” and help to deconstruct what Mikhail Bakhtin called an “authoritative discourse”. I also explore how concepts like “life knowledge” and “all-unity” (by Semyon Frank) enable us to speak up against war and political violence today.
Clausal complements are generally taken to be free from formal licensing conditions such as the Case Filter. In this paper, I discuss the distributional restriction of čto-clause complements of N to restructuring V-N collocations earlier proposed in Knyazev 2016, where it was explained by a formal licensing requirement for čto-clausess. I present the results of an experimental study that used a factorial definition of the restriction adapted from studies of island effects (see Sprouse et al. 2013). The results provide evidence for the restriction and indirectly support the licensing requirement proposed earlier.
This paper studies the quantity p(n,r), that is the minimal number of edges of an n-uniform hypergraph without panchromatic coloring (it means that every edge meets every color) in r colors. If r≤cnlnn then all bounds have a type A1(n,lnn,r)(rr−1)n≤p(n,r)≤A2(n,r,lnr)(rr−1)n, where A1, A2 are some algebraic fractions. The main result is a new lower bound on p(n,r) when r is at least cn; we improve an upper bound on p(n,r) if n=o(r3∕2).
Also we show that p(n,r) has upper and lower bounds depending only on n∕r when the ratio n∕r is small, which cannot be reached by the previous probabilistic machinery.
Finally we construct an explicit example of a hypergraph without panchromatic coloring and with
(rr−1+o(1))n edges for r=o(nlnn).
This article explores the relationship between educational outcomes and anti-school attitudes at different levels of social organization in schools. Data were collected in St. Petersburg, Russia (104 schools, 7300 students) and analyzed using multi-level regression models that included three levels: individual, clique of friends and school. A clique is defined as a tight group of friends in a school class; we used social network analysis software Kliquefinder for clique identification. We demonstrate that friends’ attitudes are strongly related to the educational outcomes of a student (net of person’s individual attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics). In contrast, school-level effects disappear in the multi-level model when individual characteristics are included. The results of the study clearly demonstrate that the socio-economic and curricular differentiation of schools does not always lead to the polarization of ‘school academic cultures’. A school social environment is sufficiently heterogeneous, and different value systems in small peer groups may coexist.
This study proposes to minimize Rényi and Tsallis entropies for finding the optimal number of topics T in topic modeling (TM). A promising tool to obtain knowledge about large text collections, TM is a method whose properties are underresearched; in particular, parameter optimization in such models has been hindered by the use of monotonous quality functions with no clear thresholds. In this research, topic models obtained from large text collections are viewed as nonequilibrium complex systems where the number of topics is regarded as an equivalent of temperature. This allows calculating free energy of such systems—a value through which both Rényi and Tsallis entropies are easily expressed. Numerical experiments with four TM algorithms and two text collections show that both entropies as functions of the number of topics yield clear minima in the middle area of the range of T. On the marked-up dataset the minima of three algorithms correspond to the value of T detected by humans. It is concluded that Tsallis and especially Rényi entropy can be used for T optimization instead of Shannon entropy that decreases even when T becomes obviously excessive. Additionally, some algorithms are found to be better suited for revealing local entropy minima. Finally, we test whether the overall content of all topics taken together is resistant to the change of T and find out that this dependence has a quasi-periodic structure which demands further research.
Industrialisation and social transformations changed the landscapes of the Soviet Arctic and stimulated discussions about the models of its domestication. Numerous industrial towns in the Soviet Far North in the 1930s were established next to Gulag labour camps. The attempt of technical, social and visual re-conceptualisation of urban space in the Soviet Arctic related to several reforms of the post-Stalin period. This chapter analyses how Leningrad architects since the 1950s used modernist urban projects for the realisation of their professional and personal ambitions trying to create a new conception of a “normal city” in extreme climate. While most were not implemented, their appearance shows the shift of the attitude toward the North in the USSR as well as the controversial changes of experts’ position.
This article examines the Finnish industrial and trade fairs held in the Soviet Union in the context of Finnish–Soviet trade and scientific–technical cooperation in the 1950s and 1960s. While primarily focused on fairs, it also discusses different activities that accompanied them, such as lectures, visits, and negotiations between Finnish traders and Soviet officials and specialists. This study illustrates how such first-hand contact played an important role in Finnish– Soviet communications. First, they helped Finnish producers showcase their goods and technologies directly to Soviet buyers in various ministries and organizations. Second, these contacts included diverse activities such as face-toface contacts, lectures, and seminars, being a means of technology transfer from Finland to the USSR. Finally, although they were commercial interactions without explicit ideological purposes – like many international exhibitions of the last century – Finnish fairs demonstrated a technological gap between Finland and the USSR.
The paper explores a symbolic appropriation of Saimaa Canal by Soviet media after it became part of the USSR in the 1940s.
Paralinguistic phenomena are non-verbal elements in conversation. Paralinguistic studies are usually based on audio or video recordings of spoken communication. In this article, we will show what kind of audible paralinguistic information may be obtained from the ORD speech corpus of everyday Russian containing long-term audio recordings of conversations made in natural circumstances. This linguistic resource provides rich authentic data for studying the diversity of audible paralinguistic phenomena. The frequency of paralinguistic phenomena in everyday conversations has been calculated on the base of the annotated subcorpus of 187,600 tokens. The most frequent paralinguistic phenomena turned out to be: laughter, inhalation noise, cough, e-like and m-like vocalizations, tongue clicking, and the variety of unclassified non-verbal sounds (calls, exclamations, imitations by voice, etc.). The paper reports on distribution of paralinguistic elements, non-verbal interjections and hesitations in speech of different gender and age groups.
In 1921 Austria became the first interwar European country to experience hyperinflation. The League of Nations, among other actors, stepped in to help reconstruct the economy, but a decade later Austria’s largest bank, Credit-Anstalt, collapsed. Historians have correlated these events with the banking and currency crisis that destabilized interwar Europe—a narrative that relies on the claim that Austria and the global monetary system were the victims of financial interlopers. In this corrective history, Nathan Marcus deemphasizes the destructive role of external players in Austria’s reconstruction and points to the greater impact of domestic malfeasance and predatory speculation on the nation’s financial and political decline.
Consulting sources ranging from diplomatic dossiers to bank statements and financial analyses, Marcus shows how the League of Nations’ efforts to curb Austrian hyperinflation in 1922 were politically constrained. The League left Austria in 1926 but foreign interests intervened in 1931 to contain the fallout from the Credit-Anstalt collapse. Not until later, when problems in the German and British economies became acute, did Austrians and speculators exploit the country’s currency and compromise its value. Although some statesmen and historians have pinned Austria’s—and the world’s—economic implosion on financial colonialism, Marcus’s research offers a more accurate appraisal of early multilateral financial supervision and intervention.
Illuminating new facets of the interwar political economy, Austrian Reconstruction and the Collapse of Global Finance reckons with the true consequences of international involvement in the Austrian economy during a key decade of renewal and crisis.
There is a paradox in the aftermath of the global imperial crisis in the region of Eastern Europe and Eurasia. The Habsburg Empire which had been thought about as the katechon of future world of federalism broke into nation-states with regimes of accommodation and repression of national minorities. The Russian Empire which had been thought about as the future centralized nation-state transformed into a federation with layered forms of autonomy and decentralization. The exploration of this paradox begins with the critique of the image of the Russian Empire as a centralized and centralizing state and exploration of inclusive and differentiated governance and ways in which this political formation was reflected in political discourses of reformist and oppositional movements which in one way or another imagined the post-imperial order. The paper then traces the constitutional debates in the revolutionary contexts of 1905 and 1917 and assesses how these debates reflected local and global discourses of imagining the post-imperial order and how they were incorporated into the constitutions adopted on the territory of the former Russian Empire. The global imperial crisis which brought down the Qing, Russian, Ottoman, German and Habsburg empires stimulated imagination of post-imperial order not only in the named contexts, but also in the British, French and other cases. The circulation and synthesis of ideas fostered by the miscellany of the crumbling empires and the diversity within each of them produced a great variety of imaginations. The non-Soviet constitutional projects of 1917–1921 and the Soviet constitutions of 1918 and 1924 incorporated the experience of the Russian Empire and other imperial and post-imperial formations. The Constitution of the Far Eastern Republic, for instance, borrowed the concept of non-territorial autonomy from the Ukrainian Constitution of 1918, while the ineffectiveness of the formal right to territorial autonomy resembled that in the Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920. The multilateral transfers and borrowings, both from the Russian imperial and other contexts, resulted in the departure of the 1924 Constitution of the Soviet Union from the initial Bolshevik plans. Instead of establishing a non-national class-centered formation, it became a mere preamble to a multinational confederation to be developed by its sovereign participants, which included two federations.
This article examines the discourses of water pollution and protection in the Soviet Union in the 1950s-1960s. It explores discursive practices which sprung up related to two paper and pulp plants, one located on the shore of Lake Baikal and another production unit in Svetogorsk on the border with Finland. These two discourses provide deep insight to pro-industry and nature protection claims which characterized Soviet water pollution and protection discourses in the 1950s-1960s. The paper contends that discussions about pulp production near Baikal were influencing the conditions in other, far located regions and stimulated engineering of water treatment facilities. The development of such facilities became a compromise between supporters and defenders of increasing pulp industry production, but in practice did not result in solving the problem of water pollution. In analyzing this issue, I consider discussions around the Baikal pulp plant and first attempts of introducing advanced water treatment in an industrial city of Svetogorsk and beyond, also discussing contacts with the West, in particular with Finland and their effects on Soviet water management.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the demand for tickets in the Brazilian State Championships focussing in the impact generated by the brand teams as well as the play-off matches in the demand for tickets and, consequently, in the match day revenues. Design/methodology/approach – An equations system by three-stage least square estimator is employed. The data set comprises 1,114 matches from Mineiro, Carioca and Paulista Championships over the seasons 2013-2015. Findings – All explanatory variables increase both attendance and match day revenues. However, the most important goal is the distribution of wealth found. The presence of brand teams in those championships provides a financial aid for smaller teams. Practical implications – The proposals from the mass media to exclude the brand teams and design those championships exclusively in play-off stages should not be implemented by the policymakers. On the contrary, rearranging the design of the competition with more matches between small teams and brand teams may help to all of them. Originality/value – The paper contributes to introduce the Brazilian State Championships in the sport economics literature as well as evidences the redistribution effect of wealth among clubs.
We study game equilibria in a model of production and externalities in network with two types of agents who possess different productivities. Each agent may invest a part of her endowment (for instance, time or money) at the first stage; consumption at the second period depends on her own investment and productivity as well as on the investments of her neighbors in the network. Three ways of agent’s behavior are possible: passive (no investment), active (a part of endowment is invested) and hyperactive (the whole endowment is invested). We introduce adjustment dynamics and study consequences of junction of two regular networks with different productivities of agents. In particular, we study how the behavior of nonadopters (passive agents) changes when they connect to adopters (active or hyperactive) agents.
This essay examines the reception of Stendhal's Red and the Black in Pushkin's “Queen of Spades” (1833) and Lermontov's unfinished novel, Princess Ligovskaya (1836), particularly with regard to Stendhal's hero, Julien Sorel–the social aspirant, who is at once passionately driven and cunningly disciplined. It focuses on how the reception of Sorel in these two Russian works is contaminated in different ways with a second figure, the romantic archetype of the “child of the age.” If Sorel can be understood as developing in dialectical opposition to the child of the age, Pushkin's Germann appears to reject and undermine this literary historical development. By contrast, Lermontov's attempt to incorporate aspects of the little Napoleon into his novel proves a failure, so he retreats to a more traditional portrait of the child of the age in A Hero of Our Time. In conclusion, the article argues that Lermontov's failure is a more productive moment in the history of the Russian novel than Pushkin's successful, but utterly destructive reply to Stendhal.
Intersecting and cross-intersecting families usually appear in extremal combinatorics in the vein of the Erd˝os–Ko–Rado theorem . On the other hand, P. Erd˝os and L. Lov´asz in the noted paper  posed problems on coloring intersecting families as a restriction of classical hypergraph coloring problems to a special class of hypergraphs. This note deals with the mentioned coloring problems stated for crossintersecting families.
The article describes the current model of intergovernmental relations in Russia and explains how it was formed in the 2000s, as well as demonstrating its effects in one sphere of public administration, namely education. Based on theoretical perspectives on the expected and unexpected effects of decentralization, authoritarian politicians’ motives and central governments’ strategies aimed at overcoming the principal-agency problem, the author hypothesizes that decentralization realized under the conditions of an authoritarian government in geographically, ethnically and economically complex societies produces a kind of trap: concentration on administrative decentralization intensifies the principal-agency problem while the authoritarian rulers’ interests limit the potential for employing effective means to overcome it.
Despite the increasing number of studies devoted to creative professionals, there are still many topics, which remain understudied. Among these topics there is interconnection of professional labor and cultural institutions of which labor conditions are framed. Furthermore, while much research has been devoted to the UK, other regions or global concerns have gained little attention. This article concerns creative professionals in post-Soviet Russia. It offers an overview of the field of cultural institutions in St. Petersburg in relation with the cultural administration and the professionals working for it. In particular, this study points out to the public sector in the Russian cultural production and new non-state institutions founded by young entrepreneurs and activists, which have constantly to struggle for recognition and support of the city’s administration. Based on fieldwork conducted in St. Petersburg in 2012-2014, the empirical study includes 26 in-depth interviews with cultural managers, employees of art-centers, lofts, creative spaces, museums, theatres. The research items here highlighted are concerned with the peculiarities of the institutional environment arisen in Russia as regards the creative labor in public and non-governmental cultural institutions. It is discussed whether the post-socialism system presents a ‘luckier’ medium for a ‘good’ creative job than that of advanced capitalism.