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Russian symbolist Vyacheslav Ivanov and religious philosopher Sergius Bulgakov in 1905–1918 were connected by formal relations and friendship. In 1914 Ivanov published the poem “Mother” (“Te glyby chto nezhno zasypali grob ...”), with a dedication to Bulgakov. The article discusses this poem and its draft version, which allows to trace the movement of the poet's creative thought. The biographical context is the death of Bulgakov's mother – he described his intimate experience in the “Unfading Light” (“Svet Nevecherniy”). Special attention is paid to the symbols and motives typical to Ivanov's poetics: the firmament, the sun-heart and the motive of transparency. An idea, common both for Ivanov and Bulgakov, is that of some pre-world feminine principle that appears in their texts under different names: as Sophia, the Soul of the World, Great Mother, Mother Earth. They are also united by the special attitude towards death which is understood in a Christian way – as a birth into a new life and just a step on the path of resurrection. The intertextual connections of the poem with the philosophical and theological works by Bulgakov may be considered as a result of mutual influence and their reliance on common sources.
The article presents an analysis of occasional iambs in Pushkin's prose, describes their rhythm against the background of verse prosody and language models of verse meter. It is concluded that a constant more or less noticeable deviation from the linguistic rhythm towards the realy verse in the prose verse-like fragments may indicate the influence of the verse prosody on the poet's prose.
Статья посвящена описанию феномена агитпропа в современном искусстве.
This paper will focus on the development of a new computational system, which enables comparative statistical studies of the rhythm of verse and prose in different languages (currently 10 languages are operative, with the possibility of adding more). The results of the analysis can be used not only for studying the processes for the genesis, expansion, and modification of various versification systems, but also for commenting on and interpreting the verse rhythm in different national poetic traditions in comparison with their foreign sources and language prosody. In addition, the possibility to model various processes of poetic speech generation and to analyze rhythmic vocabularies of prose allows hypotheses about the cognitive mechanisms of verse generation. This system operates in a semiautomatic mode and, by minimizing errors and enabling the processing of large amounts of data, provides a unique tool for computer research on the rhythm of different modes of speech.
The paper deals with communication failures in everyday spoken discourse. The spontaneous character of oral speech is its basic property and becomes a prerequisite for the appearance of such a phenomenon as communicative failures. By communicative failures, we mean speech situations when the recipient of a speech message does not understand it correctly, i.e., in the way the speaker intended. The purpose of this pilot study is 1) to assess the total number of communication failures that occur with a person during a single day and 2) to determine the dependence of communication failure frequency on the communication settings and conditions. The main result of the study is a qualitative and quantitative assessment of communication failures during a subjects’s d ay.The research is based on a special experiment based on 24-hour monitoring of the subject’s speech and his subsequent retrospective commentary on all recorded data. Such an approach allows one to reduce the subjectivity inherent in much linguistic work. The research continues a series of studies devoted to the effectiveness of spoken communication and is important not only for understanding the fundamental processes of speech perception but is also crucial for the development of artificial intelligence systems involving human-computer speech dialogue systems and for speech technologies of the next generation.
This chapter focuses on textual data that is collected for a specific purpose, which are usually referred to as corpora. Scholars use corpora when they examine existing instances of a certain phenomenon or to conduct systematic quantitative analyses of occurrences, which in turn re#ect habits, attitudes, opinions, or trends. For these contexts, it is extremely useful to combine different approaches. For example, a linguist might analyze the frequency of a certain buzzword, whereas a scholar in the political, cultural, or sociological sciences might attempt to explain the change in language usage from the data in question.
The “digital” is profoundly changing Russia today. While in the mid-1990s less than 1 percent of the Russian population had Internet access, today Russia ranks sixth globally with approximately 110 million Internet users, or three-quarters of the population (The World Factbook 2019). The proliferation of affordable smartphones in the 2010s has made Internet access a commonplace by 2020, with over 60 percent of users connecting through mobile devices, and Russia’s Internet market is the largest in Europe (GfK 2019). According to the Russian Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media, the Russian Internet industry amounted to an estimated value of "ve trillion rubles in 2019, or 5 percent of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) (TASS 2019). Taking into account the additional 25 million Russians who live outside of Russia, it is no surprise that Russian is the second most popular language on the Net after English (Historical trends 2019). These figures alone make Russia an attractive object for researchers interested in the development of today’s digital society. The Russian information technologies (IT) industry, moreover, is an ample provider of highly sophisticated digital tools and well-organized software solutions
The aim of this article is to develop an against-the-grain reading of Dostoevskii's relationship to the rise of revolutionary terrorism in nineteenth-century Russia. I start by interpreting the Underground Man's forlorn state of ‘inertia’ and inwardly directed violence in terms of the Hegelian problematic of conscience (Gewissen) and the ‘beautiful soul’, as elaborated in the Phenomenology of Spirit. I then argue that, as Dostoevskii struggled to affirm a moral ideal that could overcome his protagonist's underground condition (which resembles a warped version of Hegel's beautiful soul), he gave lucid articulation to the moral-aesthetic values that would later become a staple for Russian revolutionaries, particularly the ‘conscientious’ terrorist. Within this context, I examine the case of Vera Zasulich as an unanticipated realization of Dostoevskii's moral ideal.
The article focuses on two notions which are present in Boris Poplavsky’s latest oeuvre, namely the “Paradise and Kingdom of friends” and the “Republic of the Sun”. These are linked to Friedrich Hölderlin’s poetic philosophy which solicited vivid interest among German and French poets of 910-1930. It is assumed that the semantic aura of the image of the flag, one of the most frequent in Poplavsky, might have been formed in “dialogue” with Hölderlin’s key poem «Hälfte des Lebens». Besides, the poem «Quietly the city rustles», which holds a special position in his posthumous collection «Snowy Hour» (1936), seems to be an imitation of the first stanza of Hölderlin’s famous elegy «Brot und Wein».
Working on the correspondence of Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff with Russian scholars in the summer of 2021, the author discovered two letters of Viktor Jernstedt to Wilamowitz in the mss. collection of Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen. Wilamowitz’ part of this correspondence, three letters under shelfmark call number 733.2.44 1r–6r, dated between June 1894 and August 1895, was likewise preserved among the papers of Jernstedt in the St Petersburg Branch of the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Jernstedt’s letters and two replies of Wilamowitz are transcribed for the first time and published here. Some details that should aid understanding of the letters are offered in the notes. The transcription of Wilamowitz’ notoriously difficult hand is, even in the most hopeless cases, possible, and, apart from minor abiding problems, unequivocal. While abstaining from a full critical commentary on the problem of intrusive stage directions discussed in the letters, and not wishing to take sides, the author would like to draw the readers’ attention to the way in which the gulf between the two approaches to criticism is wont to be left unbridged, however sound and convincing the arguments coming from the opposite side are.
The article focuses on the place occupied by one of the heroes of Demons, Alexei Kirillov, in the philosophical reflections of Alexandre Kojève and Albert Camus. While making only a few brief allusions to Kirillov during his seminar on Hegel at E.P.H.E. in 1934-1935, Kojève analyzes the “logical suicide” of this Dostoevskian character as a major argument in favour of a radical, “nihilistic”, interpretation of the notion of absolute freedom in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit. There are echoes of this interpretation in The Rebel (1951), where Kirillov, already referred to in The Myth of Sisyphus (1942), is placed in a negative context related to the inevitable mutation of “philosophical suicide” into “philosophical murder”. The latter can take the form of individual terrorism or state terrorism, which is absolutely inadmissible for Camus.
The article is a comparative investigation of sonata-form literary narratives employing William H. Gass’s “Cartesian Sonata” and Leo Tolstoy’s The Kreutzer Sonata as a joint sample case. Sonata properties are revealed in the two novella’s contents, not form, by way of linking them with the nineteenth-century “gendered” explanation of the sonata layout. Intermedial relations between sonata phenomena in fiction and music are regarded to be intertextual. The “sonata” status of the Gass novella is acquired when the author combines three previously published fragments under a “musicalized paratext,” providing no musical clues beyond the title. Decrypting that title, the article focuses on the idea of sonata form, which the term’s coiner A. B. Marx once described as a relationship between “masculine” and “feminine” tonal subjects. Without musicological expertise, the intersexual conflict between Gass’s characters is difficult to relate to Marx’s metaphor. This relation is facilitated by pairing Gass’s literary “sonata” with Tolstoy’s. The
tonal structure of Beethoven’s “Kreutzer”—the catalyst of marital disaster in Tolstoy—is shown to share certain affective parameters with Gass’s and Tolstoy’s narratives. The established connections are instructive insofar as
texts, contexts, and readings from different zones of cultural experience transform and enrich one another.
This article explores the “encyclopedic” properties of Madeleine Thien’s Do Not Say We Have Nothing (2016), seeking to define the novel as inherently comparative—that is, providing, in Edward Said’s words, “a comparative or, better, a
contrapuntal perspective” on the world with no need for a second counterpart text to draw cross-literary parallels. Written from a transpacific narratorial stance of a millennial Vancouver-based daughter of Chinese immigrants, the narrative communicates her second-hand knowledge about the traumatic twentieth-century history of the People’s Republic of China, accumulated in multiple alternating substories of ordinary individuals’ “practical past” as opposed to official historiography. The article likens Thien’s patchwork storytelling to Jorge Luis Borges’s apocryphal “Chinese” encyclopedia and novel, to the premodern equation between language and reality discussed in Michel Foucault’s “archaeology of knowledge,” to classical Chinese novels as described by Goethe and Franco Moretti, and to Bach’s polyphonic layout of the Goldberg Variations. Constructing sympathetic networks of music and literature, Do Not Say We Have Nothing facilitates readerly immersion, yet its fictional storyworld may not feel universally plausible. Sharing its writer’s experience of teaching Thien in Hong Kong, the article suggests that a critique of the novel’s Western, nearly Orientalist standpoint with respect to sensitive issues of recent Chinese history does not dismiss the contrapuntal outlook Thien’s readers are invited to adopt beyond their experiential backgrounds. Reading Thien, one learns to hear the world’s polyphony. That, and not a comprehensive multitude of facts summarizing a national
mentality and coherent knowledge about the world, makes Do Not Say We Have Nothing encyclopedic.
Статья посвящена описанию современного художественного контекста Москвы.
The title coinage of this book, stimulacra , refers to the fundamental capacity of literary narrative to stimulate our minds and senses by simulating things through words. Musical stimulacra are passages of fi ction that readers are
empowered to transpose into mental simulations of music. The book theorizes how fi ction can generate musical experience, explains what constitutes that experience, and explores the musical dimensions of three American novels: William T. Vollmann’s Europe Central (2005), William H. Gass’s Middle C (2013), and Richard Powers’s Orfeo (2014). Musical Stimulacra approaches fiction’s music from a readerly perspective. Instead of looking at how novels forever fail to compensate for music’s physical, structural, and affective properties, the book concentrates on what literary narrative can do musically. Negotiating common grounds for cognitive audionarratology and intermediality studies, Musical Stimulacra builds its case on the assumption that, among other things, fiction urges us to listen— to musical words and worlds.