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The article offers a new perspective on Belinsky’s literary and social impact, by retracing his intellectual evolution. In the aftermath of his crucial formative immersion in Hegel’s philosophy as a member of the Stankevich circle, the predominant trajectory of Belinsky’s personal and conceptual development essentially corresponds to the discovery and affirmation of one of Hegel’s most important principles: the sociality of reason.
The paper deals with communication failures in everyday spoken discourse. The spontaneous character of oral speech is its basic property and becomes a prerequisite for the appearance of such a phenomenon as communicative failures. By communicative failures, we mean speech situations when the recipient of a speech message does not understand it correctly, i.e., in the way the speaker intended. The purpose of this pilot study is 1) to assess the total number of communication failures that occur with a person during a single day and 2) to determine the dependence of communication failure frequency on the communication settings and conditions. The main result of the study is a qualitative and quantitative assessment of communication failures during a subjects’s d ay.The research is based on a special experiment based on 24-hour monitoring of the subject’s speech and his subsequent retrospective commentary on all recorded data. Such an approach allows one to reduce the subjectivity inherent in much linguistic work. The research continues a series of studies devoted to the effectiveness of spoken communication and is important not only for understanding the fundamental processes of speech perception but is also crucial for the development of artificial intelligence systems involving human-computer speech dialogue systems and for speech technologies of the next generation.
This chapter focuses on textual data that is collected for a specific purpose, which are usually referred to as corpora. Scholars use corpora when they examine existing instances of a certain phenomenon or to conduct systematic quantitative analyses of occurrences, which in turn re#ect habits, attitudes, opinions, or trends. For these contexts, it is extremely useful to combine different approaches. For example, a linguist might analyze the frequency of a certain buzzword, whereas a scholar in the political, cultural, or sociological sciences might attempt to explain the change in language usage from the data in question.
The “digital” is profoundly changing Russia today. While in the mid-1990s less than 1 percent of the Russian population had Internet access, today Russia ranks sixth globally with approximately 110 million Internet users, or three-quarters of the population (The World Factbook 2019). The proliferation of affordable smartphones in the 2010s has made Internet access a commonplace by 2020, with over 60 percent of users connecting through mobile devices, and Russia’s Internet market is the largest in Europe (GfK 2019). According to the Russian Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media, the Russian Internet industry amounted to an estimated value of "ve trillion rubles in 2019, or 5 percent of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) (TASS 2019). Taking into account the additional 25 million Russians who live outside of Russia, it is no surprise that Russian is the second most popular language on the Net after English (Historical trends 2019). These figures alone make Russia an attractive object for researchers interested in the development of today’s digital society. The Russian information technologies (IT) industry, moreover, is an ample provider of highly sophisticated digital tools and well-organized software solutions
The aim of this article is to develop an against-the-grain reading of Dostoevskii's relationship to the rise of revolutionary terrorism in nineteenth-century Russia. I start by interpreting the Underground Man's forlorn state of ‘inertia’ and inwardly directed violence in terms of the Hegelian problematic of conscience (Gewissen) and the ‘beautiful soul’, as elaborated in the Phenomenology of Spirit. I then argue that, as Dostoevskii struggled to affirm a moral ideal that could overcome his protagonist's underground condition (which resembles a warped version of Hegel's beautiful soul), he gave lucid articulation to the moral-aesthetic values that would later become a staple for Russian revolutionaries, particularly the ‘conscientious’ terrorist. Within this context, I examine the case of Vera Zasulich as an unanticipated realization of Dostoevskii's moral ideal.
The article focuses on two notions which are present in Boris Poplavsky’s latest oeuvre, namely the “Paradise and Kingdom of friends” and the “Republic of the Sun”. These are linked to Friedrich Hölderlin’s poetic philosophy which solicited vivid interest among German and French poets of 910-1930. It is assumed that the semantic aura of the image of the flag, one of the most frequent in Poplavsky, might have been formed in “dialogue” with Hölderlin’s key poem «Hälfte des Lebens». Besides, the poem «Quietly the city rustles», which holds a special position in his posthumous collection «Snowy Hour» (1936), seems to be an imitation of the first stanza of Hölderlin’s famous elegy «Brot und Wein».
The article is a comparative investigation of sonata-form literary narratives employing William H. Gass’s “Cartesian Sonata” and Leo Tolstoy’s The Kreutzer Sonata as a joint sample case. Sonata properties are revealed in the two novella’s contents, not form, by way of linking them with the nineteenth-century “gendered” explanation of the sonata layout. Intermedial relations between sonata phenomena in fiction and music are regarded to be intertextual. The “sonata” status of the Gass novella is acquired when the author combines three previously published fragments under a “musicalized paratext,” providing no musical clues beyond the title. Decrypting that title, the article focuses on the idea of sonata form, which the term’s coiner A. B. Marx once described as a relationship between “masculine” and “feminine” tonal subjects. Without musicological expertise, the intersexual conflict between Gass’s characters is difficult to relate to Marx’s metaphor. This relation is facilitated by pairing Gass’s literary “sonata” with Tolstoy’s. The
tonal structure of Beethoven’s “Kreutzer”—the catalyst of marital disaster in Tolstoy—is shown to share certain affective parameters with Gass’s and Tolstoy’s narratives. The established connections are instructive insofar as
texts, contexts, and readings from different zones of cultural experience transform and enrich one another.
This article explores the “encyclopedic” properties of Madeleine Thien’s Do Not Say We Have Nothing (2016), seeking to define the novel as inherently comparative—that is, providing, in Edward Said’s words, “a comparative or, better, a
contrapuntal perspective” on the world with no need for a second counterpart text to draw cross-literary parallels. Written from a transpacific narratorial stance of a millennial Vancouver-based daughter of Chinese immigrants, the narrative communicates her second-hand knowledge about the traumatic twentieth-century history of the People’s Republic of China, accumulated in multiple alternating substories of ordinary individuals’ “practical past” as opposed to official historiography. The article likens Thien’s patchwork storytelling to Jorge Luis Borges’s apocryphal “Chinese” encyclopedia and novel, to the premodern equation between language and reality discussed in Michel Foucault’s “archaeology of knowledge,” to classical Chinese novels as described by Goethe and Franco Moretti, and to Bach’s polyphonic layout of the Goldberg Variations. Constructing sympathetic networks of music and literature, Do Not Say We Have Nothing facilitates readerly immersion, yet its fictional storyworld may not feel universally plausible. Sharing its writer’s experience of teaching Thien in Hong Kong, the article suggests that a critique of the novel’s Western, nearly Orientalist standpoint with respect to sensitive issues of recent Chinese history does not dismiss the contrapuntal outlook Thien’s readers are invited to adopt beyond their experiential backgrounds. Reading Thien, one learns to hear the world’s polyphony. That, and not a comprehensive multitude of facts summarizing a national
mentality and coherent knowledge about the world, makes Do Not Say We Have Nothing encyclopedic.
The title coinage of this book, stimulacra , refers to the fundamental capacity of literary narrative to stimulate our minds and senses by simulating things through words. Musical stimulacra are passages of fi ction that readers are
empowered to transpose into mental simulations of music. The book theorizes how fi ction can generate musical experience, explains what constitutes that experience, and explores the musical dimensions of three American novels: William T. Vollmann’s Europe Central (2005), William H. Gass’s Middle C (2013), and Richard Powers’s Orfeo (2014). Musical Stimulacra approaches fiction’s music from a readerly perspective. Instead of looking at how novels forever fail to compensate for music’s physical, structural, and affective properties, the book concentrates on what literary narrative can do musically. Negotiating common grounds for cognitive audionarratology and intermediality studies, Musical Stimulacra builds its case on the assumption that, among other things, fiction urges us to listen— to musical words and worlds.
Plagiarism currently tends to be viewed as a problem connected primarily with students, albeit more prominent authors such as William Shakespeare and George Friedrich Handel were accused of it long ago. The plagiarism continues to be widespread in educational institutions, predominantly due to single-click technology, but another contributing factor that helps make it common practice is the tolerance of plagiarism on the part of educators and academia in general. In 2004, for instance, it was estimated that 10 percent of student projects in the United States and Australia involved plagiarism (Oakes 2014, 60). By contrast, in Russia, 36 percent of respondents admitted to having regularly copied the texts of others (Kicherova et al. 2013, 2); as many as 36.7 percent of undergraduate students in 8 Russian universities took personal credit for the material they had, in fact, downloaded from the Internet
Two mid-twentieth century Slavic aestheticians, both of whom applied the ‘polyphony’ metaphor to literature, inaugurated influential theories of incompletion. For Bakhtin (see 1963/1984), the polyphonic novel of Dostoevsky maintains an ongoing dialogue of characters’ discourses, which resists closure and can only be artificially aborted in the author’s ‘monologic’ finale. In Ingarden (see 1931/1973), the multi-layered structure of the literary work is brought together in a “polyphonic harmony” of aesthetic qualities, but its “stratum of represented objects” is merely a schema, which stays indeterminate no matter how much information is added to ‘concretize’ it. Neither Bakhtin nor Ingarden associates incompletion with the technical ending of the work. Instead, incompletion is inherent in the work’s parts – characters’ voices or structural layers; unfinished fragments permeate narrative from the inside. In this paper, I apply these theoretical insights to the subject beyond Bakhtin’s and Ingarden’s interest – musicalized novels. I discuss some recurrent patterns combined with frequent and extensive intermedial thematization of music (see Wolf 1999) in William H. Gass’s Middle C (2013) and Richard Powers’s Orfeo (2014) with respect to narrative ‘streams’ that account for the novels’ ‘polyphonic’ effect. In particular, I am interested in the digressive sequences of textual fragments that are composed by the two novels’ protagonists and incorporated into the novels’ surface plots. I focus on how, in Middle C, the impostor music professor Joseph Skizzen redrafts his one-sentence summary of human history until it turns into a verbal twelve-tone row, and how, in Orfeo, the composer Peter Els’s Twitter messages parallel his biomusical project that results in his being taken for a terrorist. Skizzen’s sketches of his sentence accumulate without replacing each other, while Els’s tweets shape his first-person narrative explaining how his music is bound to live forever in the bacterial DNA he has modified. These streams of incompletion not only provide the text with a means of intermedial imitation but also metafictionally designate the ability of narrative to continue beyond its own end, obtaining a quasi-temporality that Ingarden (see 1973/1986) associated with musical works.
The purpose of this paper is to test the methodological tools provided by TXM platform for research on dynamics of vocabulary and punctuation marks in diachronic corpora. TXM is a powerful text analysis software which provides both quantitative and qualitative features in a transparent open-source implementation. In this paper, we demonstrate how it can be used for diachronic text research which takes into account some external factors affecting the evident language shifts. The study was conducted on the corpus of Russian Short Stories of the first third of the 20th century. This corpus aims for collecting texts written by the maximum number of Russian writers; it is designed by its developers to become a testing ground for various text computation techniques. The results of this preliminary study show the efficacy of TXM application for research on language dynamics and confirm an obvious chronological trend in the distribution of texts under study. Thus, it was shown that Russian revolution of 1917 did make significant changes in the core vocabulary of prose language understood as well as in the use of punctuation marks. However, no evident opposition was revealed at this level between the war and peace time periods. The methodology presented in this paper may be used both for diachronic studies of literature and for various NLP tasks connected with texts processing and monitoring over time with the aim of revealing linguistic, stylistic and sentiment changes in texts influenced by some external factors.
The "idea" of hoarding in the Adolescent by Dostoevsky reflects the economic and political features of the development of post-reform Russia. At the same time, the structure of the “idea” suggests possible metonymic and metaphorical shifts in its verbal portrait, which is associated with the key rhetorical characteristics of the novel. Because of that, the “idea” can be translated into other value languages in the novel. The "idea" of Arkady Dolgoruky is considered in the article from the point of view of its ability to enter into an unlimited number of semantic relations allowed by the nature of the protagonist's desire. Money, as a universal commodity, encourages these semantic substitutions: for example, the transition from hoarding and giving away money to hoarding and distributing memories and realizing writer's ambitions. The transformation of Arkady's "idea", which the hero declares at the end of the novel, is intentionally obscured. The hidden, unmanifest aspect of the “transformation” completes the key principle of the Adolescent: to rid the text of moral “explanation”, to deprive the plot events of external motivations.
This paper develops a new perspective on the ideological antagonism between Dostoevsky and the radical critic Dmitri Pisarev, as representative of a more fundamental rift within the nineteenth-century intelligentsia—the so-called “conscience of Russian society.” Drawing on Hegel’s thematics of conscience and the beautiful soul from the Phenomenology of Spirit (which played a vital role in the emergence of the intelligentsia), the analysis links Dostoevsky’s polemic with Pisarev to an unavoidable dissonance within the inner logic of conscience, which Hegel dramatizes as a clash between two members of the conscientious community: a “beautiful soul” that acts and another “beautiful soul” that never acts, but only judges. Throughout their polemic Dostoevsky and Pisarev resemble these two “beautiful souls,” who do not realize that they represent two essential sides of conscience. At the same time, given that this conflict pitted two rival journals operating within an open literary market, the analysis also draws on Bourdieu’s sociological conception of the “literary field” and his notion of “symbolic capital.” From this perspective, Dostoevsky and Pisarev exemplify two diametrically opposed approaches to accumulating symbolic capital. Although the conflict between these two beautiful souls initially leads to an impasse among the intelligentsia, it will eventually transform the nature of conscientious action.
Similarly to many other important terms of our social vocabulary, the concept of
dignity is employed within different discourses, but in Russia a special role in its
development belongs to literature. This article discusses the use of the collocation
“dignity of a poet” in Russia in the 18th century, when cultural production started
to become autonomized and the status of “being a writer” became – or at least was
declared to be – capable of bringing fame and recognition. Historical semantics
can contribute to comprehending the processes that helped establish this particular
status of literary authors. The case of Aleksandr Sumarokov is particularly
indicative, for it is located at the intersection of two logics related to two different
realms. One is the realm of power, where dignity is determined by rank, and the
other is the new realm of literature, where “dignity” of the author is determined by
the literary merit of his texts and by public opinion. By making literature his main
occupation, Sumarokov lost his “dignity of a nobleman” and acquired the “dignity
of a poet”, which at the time lacked proper social significance. This shift accounted
for tragic conflicts in his life.
This article studies the emergence and development of iambic tetrameter in Ukrainian poetry in the 18th to mid-19th century. The genesis and evolution of the verse pattern is regarded with its Russian poetry at the background. The core hypothesis of this study is that the early forms of Ukrainian iambic verse are closely related to the poetic work of Mikhail Lomonosov and Alexander Sumarokov. The shaping and development of particular features of Ukrainian metrical verse are traced from 1761 to Taras Shevchenko. According to the proposed hypothesis, the development of alternating rhythm in Shevchenko’s verse, which is normally attributed to Pushkin’s influence, may be no less determined by some innate prosodic features of the Ukrainian language.
The article deals with the pictorial analogy used in V. Ivanov and André Gide’s works on Dostoevsky. According to the analogy, the artistic technique of Tolstoy can be associated with the diffused light, while the one of Dostoevsky — with the art of chiaroscuro. We are trying to understand if Gide could have been familiar with the work by Ivanov; what historical, literary and art history works could have served as a common source for this analogy, and how the analogy functions in the works by the two authors.
The article represents a fragment of collaborative study on the reception of heliocentrism at the turn of the twentieth century. Popular interest in astronomy and its history was an essential part of the intellectual culture of that time. From this perspective, the authors consider Alexander Blok’s poem «Worlds fly, years fly. Empty…» (1912). Blok implicitly contrasts the fixed and closed cosmos of antiquity and the Middle Ages with a multitude of worlds that fly through the endless, dark, and empty space with monstrous speed. The rotating Earth is likened to a whirring top, which reminds one, a contrario, of the former harmony of the spheres. The commentary offered in the article provides a partial reconstruction of the still largely unexplored lines of the intellectual history of the late nineteenth — early twentieth centuries related to the widespread views on the Renaissance and modern cosmology.
Leo Tolstoy’s infection theory of What Is Art? (1899) is explored in the article as an early stage of today’s reflection on enactive reading and the reader’s embodied mind in cognitive literary studies. A comparative treatment is given to Tolstoy’s Kholstomer (Strider, 1886) as the perfect sample of the defamiliarization technique (priyom ostraneniia) (Shklovsky 1917) and William H. Gass’s “Don’t Even Try, Sam” (2004) and “Soliloquy for a Chair” (2012). The purpose of this study is to determine how animal or object narrators may affect the empathetic affordance of conventionally realist and (post)modernist texts. Do the habitual placement of the diegetic narrator into the center of narrative and the resultant configuration of secondary characters impair readerly sensitivity, when they are maintained from a horse’s, piano’s, or chair’s stance? What does a surface glance at some differences between authorial approaches propose for an answer to this question? How can “unnatural narration” enrich our notions of heroism and centrality?
Chronicle of the conference "Literary Institutes and State Power in Russia in the 19th Century", held at the Pushkin House and the Higher School of Economics in 2020. The conference was attended by leading Russian and American scientists.