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This article investigates public readings in late Imperial Russia, which became both an official and popular educational practice with the establishment of the Standing Commission of Public Readings by the State Ministry of Public Enlightenment in 1872. Public readings were a form of useful and entertaining reading carried out by an authorized person who read aloud in front of an audience, thereby representing a significant democratization of the reading practice. The content of such readings, both textual and visual, was heavily controlled by the state authorities and inevitably led to the shaping of a very specific addressee, the so-called common reader.
The official image of the common reader was supposed to reflect an average citizen, and is emblematic of the complex problem of nation-building in Russian history. The study questions how the visual context of public readings contributed to the general image of the common reader. The article addresses the representation of the common reader in the media of the time, censorship limitations and strategies for illustrating public readings. This all gives a deeper perspective on the figure of the common reader, which became an ideological construct important for both domestic and foreign policy.
This article presents a hypothesis about the functioning of a peculiar unconventional supertextual unity with lyrical metaplot of initiation, cognition and hero's creation by love in I. Brodsky's work. The poem “I was only what” is seen as the semantic centre of this unity: a work that embodies in concentrated form all the main features of the whole cycle. The content and poetic peculiarities of the poem are studied: lyrical plot and subject system, imagological and thematic structure, chronotopical wholeness, intertextual level
The paper is devoted to one type of Russian distributive constructions with two interrogative
pronouns, such as kto kuda lit. “who where”, kto o čëm lit. “who about what”, kogda kak lit. “when
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how”, which bear the meaning ‘different Xs are characterized by different Ys’. We discovered that the
constructions without a predicate in the right context form a special type, which differs both from indirect distributive questions and quasi-relatives in their semantic, pragmatic, syntactic, and communicative properties. Based on corpus data, we show their historical development and modern usage, as well
as describe the most frequent lexical variables which fill the construction. The conclusion is that the
frequency, syntactic features, and degree of idiomatization have their own semantic, communicative,
and pragmatic grounds.
The article discusses the specifics of the state project of public education, initiated by the Standing Commission of Public Readings, held under the Ministry of Public Education. Publications of breeding literature and a plan of the central auditorium for public reading make it possible to identify a common system of values, in accordance with which it was required to transform the body of the subject from “narod”, as well as early mechanisms of indirect state control over the semi-literate mass of people.
Russian symbolist Vyacheslav Ivanov and religious philosopher Sergius Bulgakov in 1905–1918 were connected by formal relations and friendship. In 1914 Ivanov published the poem “Mother” (“Te glyby chto nezhno zasypali grob ...”), with a dedication to Bulgakov. The article discusses this poem and its draft version, which allows to trace the movement of the poet's creative thought. The biographical context is the death of Bulgakov's mother – he described his intimate experience in the “Unfading Light” (“Svet Nevecherniy”). Special attention is paid to the symbols and motives typical to Ivanov's poetics: the firmament, the sun-heart and the motive of transparency. An idea, common both for Ivanov and Bulgakov, is that of some pre-world feminine principle that appears in their texts under different names: as Sophia, the Soul of the World, Great Mother, Mother Earth. They are also united by the special attitude towards death which is understood in a Christian way – as a birth into a new life and just a step on the path of resurrection. The intertextual connections of the poem with the philosophical and theological works by Bulgakov may be considered as a result of mutual influence and their reliance on common sources.
Τhis article explores the ways in which transhistorical thinking has manifested itself in European cultural history. Τhe overarching notion that the shared space traversed by human communication abolishes various kinds of distance (temporal, ideological, or linguistic) is conveyed by distinct motifs, in particular the idea of “book as a friend”, which originates in the Renaissance, and the conceptualization of the present as a community of “the quick and the dead”. Thanks to the use of these topoi, as well as to modes of readings that they encourage, great individuals of the past appear as interlocutors or objects of emulation, enter a national “pantheon”, or come “alive” with the aid of a historian’s pen. Based on the texts of Russian authors (Ya. P. Shakhovskoi, N. M. Karamzin and T. N. Granovsky), placed in a wider European context, the article demonstrates that the loci communes that make it possible to conjure up the encounter between the living and the dead, can also define visions of the present and of the future.
The article presents an analysis of occasional iambs in Pushkin's prose, describes their rhythm against the background of verse prosody and language models of verse meter. It is concluded that a constant more or less noticeable deviation from the linguistic rhythm towards the realy verse in the prose verse-like fragments may indicate the influence of the verse prosody on the poet's prose.
Drawing on research by, among others, Monika Fludernik, Marie-Laure Ryan, and previous publications by the author, the present article outlines the foundations of a transmedial narratology that draws on intermediality theory, frame theory, and prototype semantics. These foundations permit the simultaneous conceptualization of narrative as a semiotic macro-mode and as a cognitive frame which enables recipients to classify given artifacts (texts, performances, etc.) as more or less narrative in accordance with the extent to which “narremes” as features of prototypical narratives can be recognized. This approach is illustrated with examples taken from three media:
literary fiction, the visual arts, and instrumental music. The comparison of the different narrative potentials of these media leads to some general reflections on both the recipient’s and the artifact’s share in narrativization (the artifact and the medium it belongs to can be strongly narrative, more or less narrativity-inducing, or non-narrative),
moreover on constitutive elements of a media-conscious narratology, and a typology of medial realization of narrativity based on transmission modes. In conclusion, benefits and problems of transmedial narratology are adumbrated.
A complex motivic unit linked with Dmitri Shostakovich’s life and work has recently taken shape in Anglophone fiction. A number of 21st-century novelists use Shostakovich’s name, while some use him as central character. Whether fictionalizations of Shostakovich exclude or include verbal transpositions of his music, the writers heavily rely on Testimony: The Memoirs of Dmitri Shostakovich as Related to and Edited by Solomon Volkov (1979). No matter how apocryphal that book is, it has contributed crucially to the construction of the current Shostakovich image in English. All novelistic incarnations of the composer are mediated neither in the first nor in the last degree. Even so, that Shostakovich feels familiar, since the corresponding motif – a thematic brick of narrative – is initially (de)formed and reproduced “from hearsay” of someone’s testimony.
Статья посвящена описанию феномена агитпропа в современном искусстве.
This paper will focus on the development of a new computational system, which enables comparative statistical studies of the rhythm of verse and prose in different languages (currently 10 languages are operative, with the possibility of adding more). The results of the analysis can be used not only for studying the processes for the genesis, expansion, and modification of various versification systems, but also for commenting on and interpreting the verse rhythm in different national poetic traditions in comparison with their foreign sources and language prosody. In addition, the possibility to model various processes of poetic speech generation and to analyze rhythmic vocabularies of prose allows hypotheses about the cognitive mechanisms of verse generation. This system operates in a semiautomatic mode and, by minimizing errors and enabling the processing of large amounts of data, provides a unique tool for computer research on the rhythm of different modes of speech.
The paper deals with communication failures in everyday spoken discourse. The spontaneous character of oral speech is its basic property and becomes a prerequisite for the appearance of such a phenomenon as communicative failures. By communicative failures, we mean speech situations when the recipient of a speech message does not understand it correctly, i.e., in the way the speaker intended. The purpose of this pilot study is 1) to assess the total number of communication failures that occur with a person during a single day and 2) to determine the dependence of communication failure frequency on the communication settings and conditions. The main result of the study is a qualitative and quantitative assessment of communication failures during a subjects’s d ay.The research is based on a special experiment based on 24-hour monitoring of the subject’s speech and his subsequent retrospective commentary on all recorded data. Such an approach allows one to reduce the subjectivity inherent in much linguistic work. The research continues a series of studies devoted to the effectiveness of spoken communication and is important not only for understanding the fundamental processes of speech perception but is also crucial for the development of artificial intelligence systems involving human-computer speech dialogue systems and for speech technologies of the next generation.
This chapter focuses on textual data that is collected for a specific purpose, which are usually referred to as corpora. Scholars use corpora when they examine existing instances of a certain phenomenon or to conduct systematic quantitative analyses of occurrences, which in turn re#ect habits, attitudes, opinions, or trends. For these contexts, it is extremely useful to combine different approaches. For example, a linguist might analyze the frequency of a certain buzzword, whereas a scholar in the political, cultural, or sociological sciences might attempt to explain the change in language usage from the data in question.
The “digital” is profoundly changing Russia today. While in the mid-1990s less than 1 percent of the Russian population had Internet access, today Russia ranks sixth globally with approximately 110 million Internet users, or three-quarters of the population (The World Factbook 2019). The proliferation of affordable smartphones in the 2010s has made Internet access a commonplace by 2020, with over 60 percent of users connecting through mobile devices, and Russia’s Internet market is the largest in Europe (GfK 2019). According to the Russian Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media, the Russian Internet industry amounted to an estimated value of "ve trillion rubles in 2019, or 5 percent of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) (TASS 2019). Taking into account the additional 25 million Russians who live outside of Russia, it is no surprise that Russian is the second most popular language on the Net after English (Historical trends 2019). These figures alone make Russia an attractive object for researchers interested in the development of today’s digital society. The Russian information technologies (IT) industry, moreover, is an ample provider of highly sophisticated digital tools and well-organized software solutions
The aim of this article is to develop an against-the-grain reading of Dostoevskii's relationship to the rise of revolutionary terrorism in nineteenth-century Russia. I start by interpreting the Underground Man's forlorn state of ‘inertia’ and inwardly directed violence in terms of the Hegelian problematic of conscience (Gewissen) and the ‘beautiful soul’, as elaborated in the Phenomenology of Spirit. I then argue that, as Dostoevskii struggled to affirm a moral ideal that could overcome his protagonist's underground condition (which resembles a warped version of Hegel's beautiful soul), he gave lucid articulation to the moral-aesthetic values that would later become a staple for Russian revolutionaries, particularly the ‘conscientious’ terrorist. Within this context, I examine the case of Vera Zasulich as an unanticipated realization of Dostoevskii's moral ideal.
The paper describes means of expressing absence and non-participation in (Maloye Karachkino = Poshkart) Chuvash and (Kubalyak) Bashkir, two Turkic languages of the Volga-Kama Sprachbund. The field data were collected in Bashkortostan (2011–2016) and Chuvash Republic (2017–2019). Additionally, we bring into comparison available data on Tatar from existing grammars, dictionaries, and corpora (and, for some aspects, from native speakers). The presented data reveal that Chuvash, Bashkir, and Tatar use very similar sets of markers to express absence or non-involvement of a participant. In each language, one of the markers (Chuvash ɕok, Bashkir juq, Tatar juk) can be described as a negative existential/possessive copula, another one (Chuvash -SƏr, Bashkir -hEð, Tatar -sEz) functions as a caritive (abessive) suffix. These markers are cognate to each other in all three languages. These markers also have the very similar ranges of basic syntactic positions and semantic functions. Syntactically, the copulas form separate clauses and usually occur as predicates of independent clauses. The caritive markers can be used in different syntactic positions: attributive, adverbial, depictive, or predicative (where they compete with the copulas). Semantically, the copulas express meanings expectable for negative existentials: existential negation proper, presentative locative negation, negation of various types of possession, and ‘no’ reply. The caritive markers express the basic caritive meanings: non-involvement or absence of a companion, of an instrument, of various types of possessees (legal and temporary possessees, body parts, relatives, parameters, etc.). Interestingly, the distribution of affirmative counterparts of the caritive marker is practically the same in Bashkir, Chuvash, and Tatar, despite the fact that these comitative-instrumental markers have different morphosyntactic nature: the Chuvash suffix -PA(lA) vs. the Bashkir and Tatar postpositions menæn and belæn. However, there is a number of differences between these three systems. First, the markers in question can have uses as part of larger constructions that differ in Chuvash, Bashkir, and Tatar. The Bashkir copula juq can combine with the participle form (in -GAn) in experiential contexts, as well as the Tatar copula juk, but not the Chuvash copula ɕok. The copula ɕok in Chuvash can be used with the infinitive in -mA to express impossibility, which has not been attested for Bashkir and Tatar. Also, only Chuvash has a complex verbal form combining an infinitive (in -mA) with the caritive marker -SƏr which functions as a “negative converb”. Chuvash has an exceptive construction which includes the caritive marker: -SƏr poɕnʲa, while in Bashkir and Tatar cognate exceptive postpositions baʃqa/baʃka are used with the ablative marker. The Chuvash and Tatar markers ɕok and juk can be used attributively without overt marking of subordination, while the Bashkir marker juq demands an additional auxiliary verb in such contexts. The Chuvash marker -SƏr displays the most features of case markers: unlike the Bashkir marker -hEð and the Tatar marker -sEz, it can combine with possessive markers and wordforms with this marker can have nouns as its dependents. And the Chuvash marker and the Tatar marker are similar in that, unlike the Bashkir marker, wordforms with them can have personal pronouns as dependents. In general, all three Turkic languages of Volga-Kama Sprachbund have similar systems of expressing absence or non-involvement of a participant. They differ only in a number of details, where Tatar has an intermediate position between Chuvash and Bashkir. This is in line with the geographical distribution of the three languages: Chuvash in the West, Bashkir in the North, and Tatar in the middle between the two.